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19 Cards in this Set

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Define the terms anatomy and physiology

Anatomy deals with forms and structures of the body, it describes what they look like and where they are located.


Physiology deals with the function of different forms and structures in the body and how they work.


Use anatomical terms to indicate correctly the orientation and location of body parts.

*Distal - is down or away from the body an example is the metatarsals are distal to the Tarsus


*Proximal - is up towards the body an example is the tarsus is proximal to the metatarsals.


* Caudal - toward the tail end.


* cranial - toward the cranium or the head end


* ventral - toward the belly, of the standing animal


* rostral - toward the tip of the nose


*Plantar - the backside of the hind leg distal to tarsus.


* Palmar - the backside of forelimb. Distal to carpus.


* Dorsal - top half of animal. Towards top of back, while the animal is standing.


* Deep - toward the center of the body or body part


*Superficial - toward the surface of the body or body part.


*Transverse plane - division straight through the animals abdomen not necessarily equal.


* Median plane - division of animal straight along top side with right and left sides divided. Both sides equal.


* Sagittal plane - divided with a left and right half bit not equal.


Distinguish cells,tissues,organs,organ systems.

Cells - basic fundamental of life. The smallest subdivision in the animals body.


Tissues - group of cells joined together to form tissues.


Organs - group of tissues working together for a common purpose.


Organ systems - group of organs working together to perform a common activity.

List types of tissues that make up the integument and describe the function of each.

*Muscle tissue - muscle cells or fibers that are designed for contractions.


*Connective tissue - forms metabolic structural connections between other tissues, helps insulate the body, forms a protective cover around organs, and helps in the healing process.


*Nervous tissues - receives and transmit electrical and chemical signals throughout the body


*Epithelial tissue - sheet of cells that cover or line other tissues. It also absorbs nutrients, filters biochemical substances, and provides sensory output.

List the structures that comprise integumentary system and describe their functions.

*Epidermis - top layer of skin. Forms an outer waterproof shield.


*Dermis - middle layer of skin. Makes up the majority of the skin and is composed of underlying dermis which is a tough leathery layer composed of dense fibroelastic connective tissue. Only the dermis contains blood vessels


*Hypodermis or subcutaneous - bottom layer of skin. Made mostly of adipose tissue which acts as a thermoinsulator in a mechanical shock absorber.

List the three major classes of joints and explain the structure and function of each

*Fibrous joints are - immovable an example are the sutures in the skull. Firmly united by fibrous tissue.


* Cartilaginous joints are - slightly movable and are capable of only a slight rocking movement


* Synovial joints are - freely movable joint. Movements include: flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, rotation, and circumduction.

Compare and contrast the three types of muscle tissue, their structures, and their functions

*Skeletal - is controlled by the conscious mind to move the bones of the skeleton so that the animal can move around.


*Cardiac - is found only in one place in the body the heart. It starts the heart beating long before an animal is born and keeps it up until the animal dies.


*Smooth - is found all over the body in places such as the eyes, the air passageways in the lungs, the stomach and the intestines. It carries out most of the unconscious, internal movements that the body needs to maintain itself in good working order.

Describe the mechanism of muscle contraction

When a muscle fiber is in a relaxed state the actin ( a protein that composes microfilaments) and myosin filaments ( a protein present in muscle fibers that aids in contractions and makes up the majority of muscle protein) overlap only a little. When the fiber is stimulated to contract, small levers on the myosin filaments, called cross bridges, ratchet back and forth and pull the actin filaments on both sides toward the center of the myosin filaments. This sliding of the filaments over each other shortens the sacromere. The combined shortening of all the end-to-end sacromeres in a muscle fiber results in what we call muscle contraction.

Explain the functions of different bones and bone types

- Supports the body


- Protects organs


- Leverage muscle / Movement


- Storage for calcium



- Long bone - femur and humerus


- Short bone - carpus, tarsus


- Flat bone - scapula


- Irregular bones - sesamoid and vertebrae.

Describe the structural and functional characteristics of the organs of the upper respiratory tract.

Upper:


*Nostrils - external opening of the respiratory tract leading to the nasal passages.


* Nasal passages - between the nostrils and the pharynx. The three main conditioning roles performed by the nasal lining are warming, humidifying, and filtering the inhailed air.


* Pharynx - (throat). Common passageway for both the respiratory and digestive systems. Allows for breathing and swallowing. The larynx and Pharlynx work together to prevent swelling from interfering with breathing and vice versa.


* Larynx - (voice box). The larynx has three main functions: voice production, prevention of foreign material being held, and control of airflow to and from the lungs.


* Trachea - (windpipe) the mucus layer on its surface traps tiny particles of debris that have made it down this far into the respiratory tube. If large amounts of debris are inhaled an increased amount of mucus is produced to trap the foreign particles which irritates the lining of the trachea and stimulates coughing to clear the passageway.

Describe the structural and functional characteristics of the organs of the lower respiratory tract.

* Bronchial tree - the branching system of bronchi and bronchioles conducting air from the wind pipe into the lungs


* Alveoli - external respiration takes place here where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged between the blood in the air.

Identify the hearts gross anatomy, including the pericardium and valves.

* Pericardium - Outer layer of the heart; made up of 3 layers. Pericardium (thin outer layer of heart), Endocarium (thin innermost lining of the heart) and Myocardium ( the thick cardiac muscle)



* Valves of the heart include:



- Atrioventricular (AV)


- Semilunar Valve (SV)


- Pulmonary Valve


- Aortic Valve



* Heart Vessels Include:


- Vena Cava


- Aorta and Aortic Arch x2


- Coronary Vessels


- Auricles - (ears) largest part of Atria


- Pulmonary Artery


Identify parts of the skeletal system and discuss functions and interrelationships.

2 categories: appendicular skeleton (consists of bones of the limbs, shoulders, and pelvic) and axial skeleton (bones of the skull, spine, ribs, and sternum). The axial s. forms the central supporting structure for body's organs and provide protection for delicate structures such as the brain, spinal cord, heart, and lungs.

Describe how the respiratory system supplies oxygen to cells, including both the physical and chemical processes involved in respiration.

* Physical : when animal breathes in, the diaphragm contracts and moves caudally (increases length of thoracic cavity); external muscles and intercostal muscles help by pulling ribs cranially and laterally which moves sternum farther from spine (increases depth of thoracic cavity); both increases volume of thorax and increase generates negative pressure which causes air to enter lungs via upper resp. system until pressure of alveoli equals that of outside air



* Chemical : purpose of gas exchange is to take O2 into body and eliminate CO2 from body; gas exchange is the diffusion of gas from area of higher concentrate to area of lower concentrate; O2 moves from the air, dissolves in the alveolar wall, travels across the wall, and crosses the wall of the capillary where it dissolves into the blood and is taken into RBC for distribution to cells; C02 travels in opposite direction

Explain how the process of respiration is controlled.

Breathing is controlled by an area in the medulla oblongata of the brain stem known as the respiratory center. Within the respiratory center are individual control centers for functions such as inspiration, expiration, and breath holding. These centers send impulses out to the respiratory muscles at a subconscious level, directing them when and how much to contract. Therefore the voluntary respiratory muscles are controlled by nerve impulses from a subconscious part of the brain.

Trace a drop of blood.

Right: ( Pulmonary System )


1. Right Atrium


2. Tricuspid Valve


3. Right Ventricle


4. Pulmonary Valve


5. Pulmonary Artery----> Lungs



Left: ( Systematic Circulation )


1. Lungs


2. Left Artrium


3. Mitral Valve


4. Left ventricle


5. Aortic Valve


6. Aorta

Describe the function and structure of the lymphatic system, including its role in the immune system.

Functions of lymphatic system are:


- remove excess tissue fluid


- waste material transport


- filtering lymph


-protein transport



Structure of the lymphatic system:


- Lymph Nodes: small kidney shaped structure on lymph vessels that filter microorganisms


- Spleen: stores blood, clones lymphocytes , and removes old red blood cells.



.... Immune response....


- Thymus: Thymic function is most important in young animals because they are born without much of an immune system the thymus helps kickstart the normal development of the immune system. Produces hormone like substances


- Tonsils: nodules of lymphoid tissue. The function to prevent the spread of infection into the respiratory or digestive system


Describe pulmonic, systemic, and fetal circulation systems

* Pulmonary system: the part of the circulatory system that delivers unoxygenated blood to the lungs and oxygenated blood to the left side of the heart


* Systemic Circulation: the part of the circulatory system that provides blood flow to and away from the body tissues.


* Fetal circulatory system: fetus receives oxygen from the blood of the mother and that oxygen goes through the placenta and flows through the umbilical vein toward the heart of the fetus

Describe the structural and functional differences among the vessels or the circulatory system.

Arteries vs. Veins



Artery: muscular blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart, with the exception of the pulmonary and umbilical arteries, carry oxygenated blood, outermost layer is known as the tunica externa.



Veins: carries blood toward the heart, majority of the veins in the body carry low oxygen blood from tissues back to the heart, the exceptions being the pulmonary and umbilical vein which both carry oxygenated blood, veins are essentially hollow tubes that collapse when not filled with blood