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81 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
List three functions of the lymphatic system
1)transports excess fluid to the bloodstream
2)absorbs fats
3)defends body against disease
Lymphatic capillaries are microscopic, closed-ended ____ that extend into ____ _____. They receive ___ through their thin ___
tubes, interstitial spaces, lymph, walls
Lymphatic vessels have walls similar to those of ___, only thinner, and possess ____ that prevent ____ of lymph
veins, valves, backflow
Larger lymphatic vessels lead to ___ ____ and then merge into ____ ____
lymph nodes, lymphatic trunks
Lymphatic trunks lead to which collecting ducts? These collecting ducts join what?
the thoracic duct, and the right lymphatic duct.
They join the subclavian veins.
Tissue fluid originates from ____ ____.
blood plasma
Tissue fluid lacks ___ (size of) proteins. Some smaller proteins, however, leak into ____ ____
large, interstitial space
As the protein concentration of tissue fluid increases, ___ ____ pressure increases
colloid osmotic
How is lymph formed?
Increasing pressure within interstitial spaces forces some tissue fluid into lymphatic capillaries. This fluid becomes lymph.
Lymph returns ____ molecules to the bloodstream and transports foreign particles to ____ ____
protein; lymph nodes
How is lymph moved? (two ways)
1)by the contraction of skeletal muscles
2)low pressure in the thorax created by breathing movements
Lymph nodes are subdivide into ____. These subdivision contain masses of ____ and ____
nodules, lymphocytes, macrophages
Lymph nodes aggregate in ____ or chains along the paths of larger lymphatic ____.
groups, vessels
Three functions of lymph nodes
1)filter harmful foreing particles from lymph
2)centers for production of lymphocytes
3)centers containing phagocytic cells
The thymus is composed of ____ tissue, subdivided into ____
lymphatic, lobules
Some ____ leave the thymus and provide ____
lymphocytes, immunity
What happens to the thymus with age.
slowly shrinks after puberty.
The spleen is like a large ___ ___ subdivided into ____
lymph node, lobules
Spaces within the splenic lobules are filled with _____
The spleen contains many ____. Give two functions of the spleen
1)filter foreign particles
2)filter damaged red blood cells from blood
What is "species resistance"? Give an example.
when one species is resistant to certain diseases that may affect other species . Example: the infectious agent causing Measles, mumps, gonorrhea, syphilis, infect humans, but no other animal species
The body has ____ and ____ defenses against infection.
nonspecific, specific
Name 6 types of nonspecific defenses against infection.
1)species resistance
2)mechanical barriers
3)chemical barriers
Name two mechanical barriers involved in nonspecific defenses against infection. What do these do?
skin and mucous membranes. These block entrance of some pathogens.
List two type of chemical barriers involved in nonspecific defenses against infection.
1)enzymes (gastric juice, tears)
What is interferon?
A hormone-like peptide produced by cells like lymphocytes and fibroblasts.
Name three functions of interferon
1)stimulate uninfected cells to SYNTHESIZE ANTIVIRAL PROTEINS (that block viral proliferation)
2)stimulate PHAGOCYTOSIS
How does fever help fight infection?
Higher body temperature leads to decrease in blood iron level and increase in phagocytic activity.
What is inflammation. What are it's four clinical symptoms/signs?
1)tissue response to injury or infection
2)localized redness, swelling, heat, and pain.
In inflammation, ____ released by damaged tissus attracte ___ ___ ___ to the site
chemicals, white blood cells
In inflammation, ____ ____ containing many fibers may form a ___ around injured tissue and thus ____ the spread of ____
connective tissue, sac/barrier, block, pathogens
Which two cell types are the most active phagocytes in blood
neutrophils and monocytes
Monocytes give rise to ___, which remain fixed in ____
macrophages, tissues
Phagocytic cells are associated with the linings of blood vessels in which tissues/organs (5)?
bone marrow, liver, spleen, lungs, and lymph nodes
With regards to immunity, before birth, body cells inventory "self" ___ and other large molecules. After inventory, _____ develop receptors that allow them to differentiate between nonself (foreign) and self ____
proteins, lymphocytes, antigens
How do nonself (foreign) antigens simulate an immune reaction.
Foreign antigens combine with Y cell and B cell surface receptors, stimulating these cells to cause an immune reaction.
What are haptens
Haptens are small MOLECULES that can COMBINE with larger ones, becoming ANTIGENIC.
Lymphocytes originate in ___ ___ ___ and are released into the blood before they ____.
red bone marrow, differentiate
Some lymphocytes, after being released into the blood, reach the ____, where they mature into _ cells
thymus, T
Where do the B cells mature?
in the red bone marrow
Where do T cells and B cells reside?
in lymphatic tissues and organs
Some T cells interact with ___-bearing agents ____ (how?), providing the ____ (what type of) immune response.
antigen, cellular
T cells secrete ____, such as ____, that enhance cellular responses to antigens.
cytokines, interleukins
T cells may also secrete substances that are ___ to their target cells.
Varieties of T cells and B cells number in the _____. The members of each variety respond only to a specific ____. As a group, the members of each variety form a ____.
millions, antigen, clone.
How are helper T cells activated?
by encountering an antigen-presenting cell which DISPLAYS a foreign antigen, for which the helper cell is specialized to react.
How does a macrophage act in the cellular immune response?
It PHAGOCYTIZES an antigen-bearing agent, DIGESTS the agent, and DISPLAYS the antigen on its cell membrane.
A foreign antigen is displayed on the cell membrane of, for example, a macrophage in association with what else?
MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) proteins.
An activated T cell contacts a ___ that carries the foreign ___ the T cell previously encountered on an ____-____ cell.
B cell, antigen, antigen-presenting
Name three things an activated helper T cell does when it contacts a B cell which carries the appropriate antigen?
1)secretes cytokines
2)stimulates B cell proliferation
3)attracts macrophages
What role do cytotoxic T cells play in immunity?
they recognize foreign antigens on TUMOR cells and cells whose surfaces indicate that they are INFECTED by viruses. The cytotoxic T cell then kills the other cell.
What are memory T cells?
T cells that respond quickly to subsequent exposure to the same antigen, AFTER the first exposure to this antigen.
T cells are involved in which of the two types of immune response?
Cellular immune response.
briefly explain cellular immune response
Macrophages phagocytize foreign antigen and display it. This stimulates helper T cells, which stimulate B cells, and attact macrophages. Killer (cytotoxic) T cells are stimulated by the foreing antigen on tumor cells or infected cells. They kill the bad cell.
B cells are involved in which of the two types of immune responses?
humoral immune response
B cells are activated when they encounter an ____ that fits their ____ receptors.
antigen, antigen
An activated B cell ____ (especially when stimulated by a __ ___), enlarging its ____
proliferates/divides, T cell, clone
Some activated B cell clones specialize into antibody-producing ____ cells. Others become ____ cells.
plasma, memory
Antibodies react against the ___-____ agent that stimulated their production.
What are antibodies?
List the five major types of immunoglobulins. Which are the three most abundant?
IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, IgE

IgG, IgA, IgM are the most abundant.
what are the three general ways that antibodies act?
1)attach directly to antigens
2)activate complement
3)stimulate local tissue CHANGES that are UNFAVORABLE to antigen-bearing agents (eg viruses or bacteria)
List three things that can result from direct attachment of antibody to antigen
What is "complement". What does it do (3)?
complement is a protein
1)attracts phagocytes
2)changes cells to make them more susceptible to phagocytosis
3)ruptures foreign cell membranes (lysis)
The first reaction to an antigen is called a ___ ___ ___.
primary immune response`
During a primary immune response, _____ are produced for several weeks. Some _ ___ remain dormant as ____ cells.
antibodies, B cells, memory
A ____ immune response occurs rapidly as a result of _____ cell response if the same antigen is encountered later again.
secondary, memory
What is active immunity? passive immunity? Which lasts longer
Active immunity occurs when a person produces an immune response to an antigen. This type last the longest.
Passive immunity is when a person receives ANTIBODIES produced by another individual or in a lab.
What is the difference between naturally and artificially acquired immunity?
Naturally acquired immunity arises in the course of natural events. Artificially acquired immunity is the result of a medical procedure.
1)What is an example of a naturally acquire ACTIVE immunity.2)naturally acquired passive immunity?
1)a primary immune response after an infection with a pathogen
2)antibodies passing from mother to fetus through the placental membrane.
1)What is an example of an artificially acquired active immunity? 2)artificially acquired passive immunity?
1)vaccine containing a dead or weakened pathogen.
2)injection of antibodies into a person.
what are allergic reactions?
excessive and misdirected immune responses that may damage tissue.
____-_____ allergy, which can occur in anyone and inflame the skin, results from repeated exposure to ____. Give an example. What cells are involved in this?
delayed-reaction, antigens.
example: dermatitis from repeated exposure to cosmetics
T-cells, and macrophages
____-____ allergy is an inborn ability to overproduce ____
Immediate-reaction, IgE
Which type of cells is particularly involved in an allergic reaction? What does this type of cell release when it erupts
1)mast cells
2)releases allergy mediators such as HISTAMINE
In an allergic reaction, chemicals released from ___ cells can cause what type of allergic symptoms?
hives, hay fever, asthma, eczema, gastric disturbances.
What is tissue rejection?
When a transplant recipient's immune system reacts against the transplant
What can minimize tissue rejection, and help prevent it?
1)matching donor and recipient tissues
2)using immunosuppressive drugs
What is an autoimmune disorder?
when a person's immune system manufactures antibodies that attack that person's own tissues
Name three things that can cause, or are associated with, an autoimmune disease.
1)previous viral infection
2)faulty T cell development
3)reaction to a foreign antigen that resembles a self antigen.
Describe how an immediate-reaction allergic response may occur.
1)patient previously sensitized to an antigen
2)second contact with antigen, IgE attaches to mast cells, and causes release of chemicals such as histamine.