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61 Cards in this Set

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At what angle does the medial column diverge from the humeral shaft?

45 deg

What angle does the lateral column diverge from humeral shaft?

20 deg

Through an arc of how much, is the trochlea covered with articular cartilage?

300 deg

What shape is the capitellum? What direction is its radius of curvature wideR?

Ellipsoid, medial-to-later curvature wider

What is the natural valgus tilt of the distal humerus articulation with respect to the long axis of the humerus? (AP view)

6 Degrees

How much anterior rotation (lateral/sagittal view) does the humerus show wrt long axis of humerus

30 degrees

On an axial view of the distal humerus, how many degrees of internal rotation b/w the articulation in reference to line connecting midportions of the epicondyles?

5 to 7 degrees internal rotation

5 to 7 degrees internal rotation


What is the bow of the radius on the coronal plane?

10.33 degrees

Which third of the radius is the apex?

~middle third

What is the proximal radius saggital bow?

4.66 degrees, apex volar

What is the radial head fixation "safe zone"? Its landmarks?

110 degrees of nonarticular arc (for screw placement)


Landmarks: palpation of radial styloid & lister's tubercle

What aspect of the coronoid articular surface, is a critical stabilizer of the elbow under varus & rotation stress?

The anterio-medial facet

What is PUDA?

Proximal Ulna Dorsal Angulation

Proximal Ulna Dorsal Angulation


What is the contralateral PUDA measure reliable for?

Determining angle in pts with communition/distorted anatomy

Mean PUDA angle? Location?

5.7 degrees, 47 mm distal to tip of olecranon

What radiographic view is Baummann's angle measured?

AP view of the distal humerus

What lines make up Baumman's angle?

Intersect line drawn down humeral axis and a line drawn along growth plate of the lateral condyle

Intersect line drawn down humeral axis and a line drawn along growth plate of the lateral condyle


What is the significance of the Baumman's angle?

Meausure of an adequate reduction when compared with non-injured arm. Deviation of >5 degrees = inadequate

CRITOE acronym on physis fusion in a peds elbow

Capitellum - 1


Radial head - 3


Internal - 5


Trochlea - 7


Olecranon - 9


External - 11

The ages in order for CRITOE?

1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11


C, R, I, T, O, E


(odd numbers increasing by 2)

The PRUJ (prox-radio ulnar joint) has an arc of articulation of how much?

60 to 70 degrees, highly congruous

True or false: no soft tissues structures routinely attach to the tip of the coronoid

True

How many mm is the coronoid from the joint capsule? From brachialis? from MCL?

6 mm, 12 mm, 18 mm

What are the 3 components of the medial (ulnar) collateral ligament?

1. Anterior bundle


2. Transverse bundle/ligament


3. Posterior bundle

What are the 3 components of the lateral ligamentous complex?

1. Annular ligament
2. Radial collateral ligament (RCL)
3. Lateral ulnar collateral ligament (LUCL)

1. Annular ligament


2. Radial collateral ligament (RCL)


3. Lateral ulnar collateral ligament (LUCL)


The 2 places the annular ligament attaches to?

Anterior & posterior margins of the sigmoid (radial) notch

Anterior & posterior margins of the sigmoid (radial) notch


The RCL attaches onto?

Annular ligament

The RCL is taut at which point of elbow ROM?

Taut through entire ROM

LUCL origin?

Same as RCL, lateral epicondyle


Where does the LUCL insert?

Discrete insertion: tubercle of supinator crest

what is PLRI?

Posterolateral radial instability

What elbow ligament is deficient in PLRI?

LUCL

Insertion of anterior bundle of MCL?

Sublime tubercle

Sublime tubercle


Which bundle of the UCL serves as the primary static stablizer to valgus stress? Through which angles of elbow flexion?

Anterior bundle of UCL = primary stablizer


20 to 120 deg elbow flexion

How many bands to the anterior bundle of the UCL?

3 bands (anterior, central, posterior band).

Which is the most important band of the Anterior Bundle?

Central band

What is the central band of the Anterior bundle also known as?

"Isometric bundle"

What is the function of the anterior bundle?

Maintains normal elbow kinematics and stability throughout the arc of flexion.

Which band of the anterior bundle is most susceptible at higher flexion angles?

Posterior band

Most susceptible at low flexion angle (or extension)?

Anterior band

Which bundle of the MCL (UCL) can be relased to increase flexion in stiff elbow?

The posterior bundle

Does the transverse bundle span the ulnohumeral joint?

No, and has undetermined function

3 primary static stabilizers of the elbow:

Ulno-humeral articulation


MCL (i.e. UCL)
LUCL

3 secondary static stabilizers to elbow:

Radial head


Joint capsule


Cmmon flexor & extensor origins

3 contributors to Axial forearm stability

Intact radial head (primary)


TFCC & Interosseous membrane (secondary

Regarding force transmittance, radiocarpal joint absorts what percent of the load?


80%


Remaining 20%: ulna


How many ligaments to the interosseous membrane?

5

IF radial head removed, what structure absorbs the axial load trasnmitted through fore-arm?

IOM, 90%


(central band contributes 71%)

The brachial artery lies deep to which structure?

Deep to bicipital aponeurosis (aka lacertus fibrosis)

What is the course of the barchial artery?

-Crosses infront of intramuscular septum


-Lies anterior to medial aspect of brachialis m.


-Enter anticubital space medial to biceps tendons, lateral to the n.

Where does the median n. cross the brachial a. ?

Near mddile of arm, median n. crosses in front of and medial to artery

The radial a. enters the wrist between which 2 structures?

Brachioradialis and FCR

The ulnar a. lies b/w which 2 structure PROXIMAL?

B/w FDS and FDP muscle

The ulnar a. lies b/w which 2 structure DISTALLY?

Travels with ulnar n. between FDS and FCU tendons

Is the ulnar a. deep or superficial to pronator teres?

Deep

Is the radial a. deep or superficial to brachioradialis?

Deep

The common interosseous artery is a branch of?

The ulnar artery

What structure does the ANTERIOR interosseous artery travel with?

The AIN

The radial recurrent (RR) artery forms an anastomoses with which artery?

Radial collateral artery.

The anastomosis b/w RR and RC arteries supplies which structure of the elbow?

The capitellum

What 3 things should you commit to memory for nerves?

1. Its course


2. Order of muscular innervation


3. Potential sites of compression (clinical syndromes/correlation)