Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

147 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

which muscles act to flex the hip joint?

psoas major, sartonrius, iliacus and rectus femoris

which muscles act to extend the hip?

glut max and hamstrings

what action of glut med and min have on the hip?

abduction and medial rotation

what side is the tensor fascia lata on and what does it do?

lateral and Thigh - flexion, medial rotation,abduction Leg - lateral rotation,Torso - stabilization

what does pectineus do?


what action do piriformis, obturator internus, quadratus femoris and obturator externus have on the hip?

lateral rotators

where are all the adductor groups?

adductor mag,long,bre,pec

when the ACL is torn what else is commonly damaged?

the medial collateral ligament and medial meniscus

which side is biceps femoris?


which muscle acts to unlock the knee by laterally rotating the femur on the tibia?

popliteaus (lateral condyle to tibia)

which nerve is affected in foot drop?

deep peroneal (the dorsiflexors are affected)

what joint type is the superior tibiofibular joint?

arthrodial (plane) glinding joint

what joint type is the inferior tibiofibular joint?

fibrous (Syndesmosis)

what is osgood schlatter disease?

growth plate strain, pain in tibial tuberosity where the patella ligament attaches

what are shin spints caused by?

periostitis which is inflammation in the connective tissue, caused by excercise

what does perineus tertius do and where is it? q

dorsiflexion, just infront of lateral malleolus

what is the subtalar joint and what bones form it?

talus and calcaneos, plane synovial, inversion and eversion

what bones connect in the transverse tarsal joint?

talus with the navicular and calcaneus with the cuboid, inversion and eversion

when does achilles tendon rupture occur?

when knee is extended and the ankle is dorsiflexed

what is a bunion?

enlargement of bone or tissue at big toe

what is the transverse arch maintained by?

tendon of peroneus longus

what us the medial longitudinal arch maintained by?

spring ligament between the calcaneuos and navicular on medial side

what is the lateral longitutinal arch maintained by?

long and short plantar ligaments

what bones is the short plantar ligament between?

the calcaneus and the cuboid

what bones is the long plantar ligament between?

the calcaneuos and the metatarsals

where is the insertion of the iliosoas?

lesser trochanter

where is the medial collateral ligament connected?

the tibia

where is the lateral collateral ligament connected?

lateral menisci

what is genu valgum?

knock knee

what is genu varum?

bowed out knees

which fossa does infraspinatos arrise from?


where does the long tricepts insert?

infraglenoid tubercle

which rotator cuff muscle assists in abduction?


what action does deltoid have on the shoulder?


what is bicept brachii's distal insertation?

radial tuberosity

what is tricepts distal insertation?


what forms the posterior boundary of the axilla?

lat dorsi

brachial plexus?

c5 to t1

what does the head of the radius articulate with?

the capitulum

what side is the capitulum on compared to the trochlea?

lateral (articulates with the radius)

which vein commences over the anatomical snuffbox?


what supplies pronator tere?

median nerve

what is a posterior fat pad sign?

always pathological

what can a supracondylar fracture cause?

damage to median nerve and brachial artery

what can an olecranaon fracture cause damage to?

ulnar nerve

what is a colles fracture?

posterior displacement of the radius

what is a smiths fracture?

anterior displacement of the radius, fall with a flexed hand

what is frozen shoulder?

inflammation of connective tissue surrounding the shoulder joint due to trauma, overuse or autoimmune

which side does golfers elbow result in pain?

medial side becuase overuse of forearm flexors

what side has pain in tennis elbow?

lateral epicondyle

what are the clinical signs of golfers elbow?

pain on proximal insertation of tendon and pain on resistance to wrist flexion when hand in pronation

what are the clinical signs of tennis elbow?

pain on resistance to wrist extension

what are the contents of the carpal tunnel?

deep and superficial flexor tendons, median nerve, flexor pollucis longus

causes of carpal tunnel syndrome..

obesity,RA, pregnancy, acromegaly, hypothyroidism, reptitive strain injury

clinical signs of carpal tunnel syndrome..

weakness of thenar eminence and 2 radial lumbricals and loss of sensation in the 3 and a half lumbricals

what is phalen's sign and what is it used to diagnose?

to diagnose carp tun. forced flexion causes pain

what is tinnels test?

for carp, tapping over carpal tunnel

what is pulled elbow a dislocation of?

elbow, lippage of the head of the radius under the annular ligament

what nerve roots are affected in erbs palsy?

c5 and 6, waiters tip

what nerve roots are affected in klumpe's paralysis?


what even is klumpes paralysis anyway?

paralysis of intrinsic muscles of hand, claw hand

what does the serratus anterior do to the shoulder gurdle?

protracts, stabilises the scapula, keeps it down

what is the serratus anterior stabilised by?

the long thoracic nerve, c567`

what effect does the trapezius have on the scapula?

shoulder shrugging, elevation rotation, retraction, depression
what is the trapezius supplied by?

the accessory nerve...c3,4

what is the levator scapulae supplied by?

c3,4,5 dorsal scapula nerve and

what do the rhomboid major and minor muscles do to the scapula?

retract it, fix it to the thoracic wall

what are the rhomboid major and minor an levator muscles supplied by?

the dorsal scapular nerve, c4,5

what nerve supplies pec minor?

medial pectoralis nerve, c8 and t1, stabilises scapula, draws the scapula inferior


scapula burning pain, winged scapula

what occupies the space between the greater tubercle of humerus and acromium?

what is pec major supplied by?

lateral and medial pec nerve

what is lat dorsi supplied by?

thorodorsal nerve

what actions does lat dorsi have on the shoulder joint?

Adducts, extends and internally rotates the arm (climbing or pull ups)

what nerve supplies teres major?

lower subscapular nerve, adducts humerus

which nerve supplies the teres minor?

axillary nerve

whaich way is shoulder most commonly dislocated?


what under the coraacromial arch may get damaged after a shoulder dislocation?

supraspinous tendon and subacromial bursae

which is superior out of the rhomboids?


where does the brachialis insert onto?


which direction does the pronator teres go in?

medial to lateral

what supplies the supinator?

radial nerve (capitulum to radius)

what forms the top boundary of the anatomical snuffbox (medial)

extensor pollucis longus

what forms the bottoms of the triangle of the anatomical snuffbow (lateral) ?

extensor pollucis brevis

where is abductor pollucis longus?

just below brevis in the triangle

what is the adductor pollucis supplied by?

ulnar nerve!

what are the lumbricals supplied by?

1st and 2nd are median but 3rd and 4th are radial

what is dupuytren's contracture?

fixed flexion of the hand

what does the superficial palmar arch supply and whats its main origin?

ulnar artery, digits

what is mallet finger?

from hyperflexion of finger, cant extend the dip

which joints of the hand do OA affect?


which joints does RA affect?

wrist, MCP, PIPs

where are the azygous vein, oesphagus, vagus nerve, thoracic aorta all found?

posterior mediast inum

where are the main bronchi and the phrenic nerve found?

middle mediatinum

what are the superior borders of the heart?

right =3rd costal cartilage, left=2nd intercostal space

what are the inferior borders of the heart?

right= 6th costal catilage, left=5th intercostal space

what are the left boundaries of the heart?

2nd intercostal space, 5th intercostal space

right boundaries of the heart?

6th costal cartilage and 3rd costal cartilage

what are the pulmonary surfaces of the heart?

l ventricle, r atrium

where is the apex of the heart?

5th intercostal space,mid clavicular line

how many pulmonary arteries are there?


how many pulmonary veins are there?


in what percentage of people does the right coronary artery supply the SAN?


in what percentage of people does the left coronary artery supply the av node?


what does the LAD artery travel with ?

great cardiac vein

what does the marginal branch of the right coronary artery travel with?

small cardiac vein

what does the posterior descending artery travel with?

middle cardiac vein

WHICH VESSELS ARE OFTEN used for cornary artery bypass grafts?

long saphenous/radial artery or internal thoracic artery

what is the serous pericardium made up of?

parietal and viseral

what is the perital pericardium adherant to/


what is the visceral pericardium adherent to?


which layers are the sinuses of the heart in between ?

visceral and serous

what is the fibrous pericardium supplied by?

the phrenic nerve

what is the parietal pericardium supplied by?

the phrenic nerve

what is the visceral pericardium supplied by?

the vagus and sympathetic nerves

where is pain from the pericardium reffered to?

c4, shoulder tip

where is the thoracic aorta?

posterior mediastinum

where is the azygous vein?

posterior mediastinum

where is the phrenic nerve?

superior and middle

where is the oesophagus?

posterior and superior

what is blunted if fluid present in pleural cavity in pleural effusion?

costophrenic angle

what is aortic dissection?

when the intima of the vessel wall separates from aorta

what is the auscultation of the aortic valve?

2nd intercostal space, right sternal border

what is the auscultation of the pulmonary valve?

2nd intercostal space, left sternal border

what is the auscultation of the tricuspid valve?

5th intercostal space, left lower sternal border

what is the auscultation of the mitral valve?

5th intercostal space, midclavicular line

what is the ausuculatation of an aortic stenosis?

aortic region radiating to the carotids

what is the auscultation of an aortic regurgitation?

aortic region, especially in expiration when patient leaning forwards

where is a heart mumur of pulmonary stenosis heard?

pulmonary region and radiates to back

where is a heart murmur of pulmonary regurgitation heard?

pulmonary region when patient is leaning forwards

where is any mitral vavle murmur heard?

apex and radiates to axilla

what kind of mumur is mitral stenosis?

diastolic mumur

what is a heave a sign of?

left ventricular hypertrophy

what are janeways regions?

non tender haemorragic regions

what are oslers nodes?

tender regions

is a transthoracic node external or internal?


what does the ductus arteriousus connect?

the pulmonary artery and the aorta

what type of blood is in the left ventricle in feotal circulation?

mixed deoxy and oxy

what allows bllod to flow between the atrium in the foetus?

formaen ovale (when pressure in l atrium exceeds pressure in r atrium the foramen ovale close)

what kind of blood is in the umbilical vein?


what allows blood to be transported through the umbilical vein through the liver to the inferior v c?

ductus venosus

during s1 heart sound are the ventricles contracting or relaxing?

contracting, dont want blood to go back to atrium

what attches to the atrioventricular valves and is pulled on by the papillary muscles?

chordae tendiae

what does the umbilical vein become after birth?

ligamentum teres

what doest the medial umbilical ligament become after birth?

medial umbilical ligament

what does the ductus arteriousus become after birth?

ligamentum arteriosusm

which pulse do you feel on medial malleolus?

posterior tibial