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171 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

4 muscles of the abdomen



Transversus abdominus

Rectus abdominus


Orientation of external oblique

Obliquely downward and medially

Rectus abdominis whose lateral borders convex to form

Linea semilunaris

Abdominal muscle oriented upward and medial

Internal oblique

Conjoint tendon splits to form

Rectus sheath

Conjoint tendon formed by 2 muscles


Transversus abdominis

Union of aponeurosis of external oblique and anterior layer of IO forms

*above the arcuate line

Anterior wall of the rectus sheath

Union of aponeurosis of the transversus abdominis and posterior layer of IO

*above the arcuate line

Posterior wall of the rectus sheath

What muscle contributes to the posterior layer of the rectus sheath below the arcuate line

Transversalis fascia

Muscles found in the rectus sheath

Rectus abdominis


Blood supply of the abdominal muscles

Superior epigastric

Inferior epigastric

Deep circumflex iliac

*same as venous

*drains to internal thoracic, external iliac

Boundaries of Hesselbach's triangle

Inf epigastric artery - sup/lateral

Inguinal/Poupart's ligament - inferior/lateral

Rectus abdominis - medial

Contents of inguinal canal found in both males and femalez

Ilioinguinal nerve


Difference between indirect and direct inguinal hernia


Narrow neck of hernial sac

Lateral to inferior epigastic vessels

Enters the scrotum

Hernia covered only by external spermatic fascia

Direct inguinal hernia

Cremaster muscle is derived from what layer of the abdominal wall

Interior oblique

Dartos muscle is derived from what layer of the abdominal wall

Superficial fascia

Tunia vaginalis is derived from what layer of abdominal wall


Spinal nerve which supplies the cremasteric reflex


Nerves that supply the sensory and motor function for the cremasteric muscle

Femoral of genitofemoral - afferent

Genital of genitofemoral - efferent

8 retroperitoneal organs





Duodenum - 2nd-4th

Ascending colon

Descending colon

Abdominal aorya

Subdivision of the peritoneal cavity that lies posterior to the stomach and lesser omentum

Omental bursa

Lesser sac

Boundaries of Formanen of Winslow

*communication between lesser and greater sac

Ant: Hepatoduodenal ligament

*portal vein + hepatic artery + bilr duct

Post: IVC

Sup: Caudate lobe

Inf: Superior duodenum

3 parts of the omentum




Peritoneal reflection that supports hollow viscous to body wall


Peritoneal reflections that connects viscera to each other


Rebound tenderness


Signs of what condition ?

Inflammation of parietal peritoneum

Structures penetrated by midline paracentesis


Superficial fascia

Deep fascia

Linea alba

Transversalis fascia

Extraperitoneal fat

Parietal peritoneum

Lateral paracentesis will injure the ?

Inferior epigastric artery and above deep circumflex arteru

2 unpaired arteries of the abdominal aorta

*terminal branches

Common iliac

Median sacral

3 branches of the celiac artery

Left gastric

Splenic artery - L gastroepiploic, Short gastric

Hepatic - Right gastric, R/L hepatic, gastroduodenal (R gastroepiploic, superior pancreaticoduodenal)

Foregut is supplied by what artery

Celiac trunk

Collateral circulation formed by celiac artery occlusion in aortic aneurysm

Pancreaticoduodenal branches of SMA


All veins drain to the IVC except

L suprarenal

L gonadal

4 portal-caval anastomoses

Esophageal of L gastric = esophageal of azygous

Superior rectal = middle/inferior rectal


Colic veins = retroperitoneal veins

Length of the esophagus



3 esophageal constrictions

Pharyngoesophageal 18cm/7.2cm

Thoracic 28cm/11.2

Diaphragmatic 44cm/17.2

*sites of carcinoma

Innervation of the anterior esophagus

Left vagus


Condition caused by incompetent esophageal spinchter

Subternal burning pain


Mechanism of achalasia

Smooth muscle fails to relax

Dilated esophagus

4 types of diaphragmatic hernia

Congenital - L posterolateral part

Hiatal - esophageal hiatus



Purpose of Sengstaken-Blakemore Balloon insertion

Esophageal hemorrhage from esophageal varices

Gastric balloon anchors tube against esophageal gastric

Distance between the external orifices of the nose and stomach

17.2 inch


Capacity of stomach


Function of stomach

Food blender and reservior

Enzymatic digestion

Wide part of pylorus

Pyloric antrum

Sharp indentation which approximates the junction of the body and pyloric part of the stomach

Angular incisure/notch

Location of the cardiac orifice on the surface anatomy of the stomach

6th left costal cartilage


Location of the fundus of the stomach

5th left rib MCL

Location of pyloric antrum

9th CC


Location of the pyloric canal


Blood supply of the lesser curvature of the stomach

R/L gastric arteries

Blood supply of the greater curvature of the stomach

R/L gastroepiploic arteries

Fundus of the stomach is supplied by

Short f


Sympathetic innervation of the stomach is from what segment of the spinal cord


MC location of gastric ulcers

Lesser curvature

MC location of gastric carcinomas


Length of the duodenum



4 divisions of the duodenum

Superior - 5cm, L1

Descending - 7-10cm, R sides of L1-L3

Horizontal - 6-8cm, L3

Ascending - 5cm, L2-L3

MC location of duodenal ulcers

Anterior wall of the first part of the duodenum

Hemetemesis is bleeding from where ?

Proximal to ligament of Trietz

Length of jejenum and ileum

6-7m long

Blood supply of jejenum and ileum

SMA at L1

Arterial arcade

Vasa recta

4 differences between jejenum and ileum

Greater vascularity

Less fat

Large and tall plicae circularis - Valves of Kerckring

Less Peyer's patches

MC part of SI involved in intussusception


Ventral pancreatic bud forms what ?


Uncinate process

Duct of Wirsung joins bile duct to form

Hepatopancreatic ampulla

Duct of Santorini drains into

Main pancrearic duct

5 ligaments of the liver



R/L triangular ligament

Ligamentum teres - quadrate (GB)

Ligamentum venosum - caudate (IVC)

Contents of the portal triad

Portal vein

Hepatic artery

Bile duct

Maneuver which controls hemorrhage of the liver by clamping the hepatoduodenal ligament

Pringle's maneuver

Function of the gallbladder

Receives, stores and concentrate bile by absorbing water and salt

Capacity of the bladder


Part of the gallbladder which gave rise to cystic duct


Infunfibulum of the GB found at the junction between neck and cystic duct

Hartmann's pouch

Components of the Triangle of Calot

Liver (sup)

Cystic duct (inf)

Common hepatic duct (medial)

Common site of impacted gallstone

Hepatopancreatic ampulla

*referred pain in the epigastric region

Stone blocking the cystic duct causes what kind of pain

Biliary colic

Thickened bands of muscles seen in the large intestine

Taenia coli

Longest part of the large intestine

Transverse colon

15 inches

Blind ended pouch situated in the R iliac fossa



Location of McBurney's point

Location of appendix

Base situated 1/3 of the way up the line joining ASIS to the umbilicus

MC position of the appendix


Injured nerve during appendectomy manifesting as weakening of the abdominal wall


At what level does the sigmoid colon become the rectum


Left sided colicky pain

Abdominal distention


What condition?

Sigmoid volvulus

Differences between upper and lower anal canal

With anal columns

Columnar epithelium - stratified squamous

Sensitive to stretch - pain/temp/touch

Superior rectal A/V - inferior

Inferior mesenteric LN

Internal vs external hemorrhoids

Painless vs painful

Covered by mucosa vs skin

Internal rectal venous plexus

Remant of the proximal portion of the yolk stalk

Arises from the antimesenteric border of ileum

Meckel's diverticulum

Rule of 2

Defects in the migration and differentiation of neural crest cell results in what GI condition?


Innervation/blood supply summary

Muscle of the loin

Psoas major

Insertion of psoas and iliacus

Lesser trochanter of femur

3 coverings of the kidney

Perirenal fat


Pararenal fat

Anastatomosis done in renal transplantation

Renal artery to internal iliac artery

Renal vein to external iliac vein

Match layer of adrenal gland layer and hormone

Glomerulosa - aldosterone

Fasciculata - cortisol

Reticularis - androgens

Adrenal cortex derived from ?

Medulla derived from ?


Neural crest

Adrenal medulla secretes what hormone ?



All veins drain into the IVC except

L gonadal

L adrenal

Excessive androgen production

Causes masculinization in females


Lining of ureter

Transitional epithelium

Ureter in males ?

Ureter in females ?

Vas deferens

Beneath broad ligament crossed by uterine artery

3 pelvic sites at risk for surgery

Ureter lies medial to ovarian vessel

Inferior to uterine vessels

Lateral to cervix

Renal colic is referred pain over which dermatomes


Base of the male UB separated from rectum by the

Denonvillier's fascia

Maximum capacity of the UB


Neck of the bladder held in position by

Puboprostatic and pubovesical ligament

Nerves responsible for bladder emptying

Pelvic splanchnic

S2, S3, S4

Primitive organ which contributes to the genital system


Metanephros becomes the

Permanent kidneys


Renal pelvis and calices

Collecing duct

Derived from?

Ureteric bud

Metanephric tubule gives rise to

Renal corpuscle


Loop of Henle


Fate of the urogenital sinus

Vesicle ?

Pelvic ?

Phallic ?

Urinary bladder

Urethra, prostatic and membranous parts, lower part of the vagina

Genital tubercle, external genitalia

Borders of the pelvic inlet

Ant - symphysis pubis

Lat - iliopectineal line

Post - sacral promontory

Borders of pelvic outlet

Ant - pubic arch

Lat - ischial tuberosities

Post - tip of coccyx

Different between female and male pelvis

Less curved

Wider sciatic notch

Everted ischial tuberosity

Oval shape

From sacral promontory to the superior margin of the pubic symphysis

What conjugate?

True conjugate

From sacral promontory to the inferior margin of pubic symphysis

What conjugate?

Diagnonal conjugate

Distance between ischial tuberosities

Transverse diameter

Distance between ischial spines

Interspinous diameter


Common contents of the pelvic cavity in males and females

Urinary bladder


Sigmoid colon


Contents of the lesser sciatic foramen

Pudendal nerve

Nerve to obturator internus

Internal pudendal vessel

Tendon of obturator internus

3 muscles which compose the levator ani




Action of the levator ani

Muscular support

Increases intraabdominal pressure for defecation, vomiting

Supports the head of the baby during expulsion

3 conditions due to pelvic diaphragm weaknrss

Uterine prolapse



2 triangles of the perineum



Components of the perineal body




2 perineal fascia

Superficial - Colle's

Deep - Perineal membrane

Common structures in male and female superficial perineal space



Perineal body

Perineal branch of pudendal nerve

Benefit of mediolateral episiotomy

Less risk in incising the fibers of the EAS

Posterior branches of the internal iliac artery


Lateral sacral

Superior gluteal

Vertebral roots of pudendal nerve




Anatomic landmark for doing pudendal block anesthesia

Ischial spine

Motor function of the pudendal nerve

Voluntary fecal and urinary incontinence

Maintain erection

Expulsion of urine from penile urethra

Indifferent stage lasts until what week

7th week of development

Gonadal sex is determined by

TDF on Y chromosome

SRY gene

At 8th week what cell secretes androgenix hormones which induces masculine differentiation

Leydig/Interstitial cells

What cells secrete MIH to inhibit development of paramesonephric duct

Sertoli cells

2 androgenic hormones



Derivatives of the mesonephric duct


Vas deferens

Ejaculatory duct

Derivatives of the paramesonephric duct

Uterine tubes



All primary oocytes are formed by ?

5th month

*arrested at various stages of oogenesis

Primary oocytes are arrested in what stage ?

Prophase of Meiosis I

After puberty primary oocyte develops into ?

*during menstruation

Secondary oocyte

1st polar body

What changes does the secondary oocyte undergo ?

Metaphase of Meiosis II

*develops at fertilization

At what stage of development does implantation happen


What reaction triggered by sperm penetrating zona pellucida

Acrosome reaction


Steps of fertilization and initiation of cleavage

Blastula with blastomeres

Combine to form morula by undergoing compaction

Timeline of ovulation to implantation

Fertilization 12-24hrs

2 cell stage 30 hrs

Morula 3 days

Blastocyst 5 days

Implantation 7 days

Preferred site of implantation of the embryo

Posterior superior wall of the uterus

Functional layer of the endometrium during the secretory phase

Function of the epididymis

Storage and maturation of sperm cell

Capacity of the gallbladder


MC location of cryptorchid testis

Inguinal canal

Descent of the testis occurs when

26-28 wks: descended retroperitoneally to the deep inguinal rings due to enlargement of the fetal pelvis

Length of the vas deferens

18in, 45cm

Vas deferens combine with seminal vesicle to form

Ejaculatory duct

Source of alkaline phosphatase in the semen

Seminal vesicle

Prostate lobe palpable by DRE


Lateral *largest

Calcified secretions from the glandular area surrounding the prostatic urethra

Corpora amylacea

Largest accessory gland of the body


*walnut shaped

BPH commonly occurs in the

Periurethral zone

Prostate adenocarcinomas typically present in the



Histology of female genital organ

Simple cuboidal

Inner cortex of the ovaries contain the

Ovarian follicles

Length of the fallopian tube



Widest part of the fallopian tube



Measurement of uterus

3inch long

2inch wide

1inch thick

Normal postion of the uterus

Anteversion (along the long axis of the vagina)

Anteflexed (body of the uterus on the cervix)

Lymph drainage of the vagina

Upper 3rd - int/ext iliac

Middle 3rd - internal iliac

Lower 3rd -superficial

Labioscrotal swellings to develop to form what in male and female ?


Labia majora (labial commisures)

Homologue of urogenital folds

Penis, spongy urethra

Labia minora, frenulim