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9 Cards in this Set

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alkenes

unsaturated hydrocarbons general formula CnH2n


unsaturated=contains C=C bond


hydrocarbon = c and h bond only

bonding

triagonal planner 1 double bond 2 single bonds


double bond formed by pi bond in the middle and sideways overlaping p obitals which makes sigma bonds both above and below

E/Z isomers

stereo isomers same structure formulae different arrangement


E- opposite sides of double bond


Z - same side of opposite bond



addition of hydrogen to produce alkane

C2H4 + H2 = C2H6


needs NI catalyst 1 mole of hydrogen per double bond


used to produce margarine from vegetables

addition of halogens to produce dihalogenalkanes

C2H6 + Br2 = CH2BrCH2Br 1,2 dibromoethene


orange to colourless show presence of double bonds



addition of hydrogen halides to produce halogenalkanes

C2H6 + HBr = CH3CH2Br

addition of steam to produce alchols

C2H6 + H2O = CH3CH2OH


needs story acid catalyst H3PO4


temp must be over 100c

procesing wate polymers

mechanical recycling: wage polymers can be melted down and reused following separation into types however expensive to collect and sort




combustion for energy production: waste polymers can me burnt as a fuel but this may produce toxic waste products




feedstock recycling waste polymers can be cracked and the products can be used as fuels and other polymers



minimising enviromental damadge in polymer disposal

combustion for energy production burning halogenated plastics such as pvcs produces toxic products like HCL however the hcl can be removed by gas scrubbers which dissolves in a spray of alkaline




developing new polymers


biodegradable polymers compostable polymer that will rot down made from isoprene maze and starch