• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

wilkins chapter 10 page 207 to 215

Egans chapter 18, 381 to 388

Workbook Chapter 18 page 141 to 146

summary of normal values for electrocardiogram interpretation and common alterations

Rate 60 to 100 /min

SInus bradycardia

Meets all the criters for NSR but is too slow

:Rate: less than 60 bpm

:Rhythm: regular

:P waves normal and is followed by a QRS

:PR interval 0.12 to 0.2 seconds

SInus Tachycardia

Meets all criteria for NSR but is too fast

:Rate 100 to 150 bpm

Rhythm regular

P waves normal but increased

SInus Tachycardia

Meets all the criteria for NSR but is too fast

:Pr interval: 0.12 to 0.2 second

:QRS less than 0.12 seconds

SInus dysrhythmia

Meets all the criteria for normal sinus rhythm but is irregular

:Rate 60 to 100 beats per minu, may also be bradycardia

:Rhythm: irregular

:P waves: normal and followed by a QRS complex

:PR interval 0.12 to 0.2 second in length

:QRS: less than 0.12 second in width

Atrial FLutter

Distinct rapid swtooth pattern between normal WRS

:Rate: atrial rates 180 to 400; ventricular rate is slower

:Rhythm: regular

:P waves, sawtooth and uniform

Atrial FLutter

Distinct rapid sawtooth pattern between normal WRS

:PRI: not measurable

:QRS less than 0.12 second

Atrial fib

Characterized by chaotic baseline between WRSs

:Rate: variable (count WRSs in 6 second strip)

:Rhythm: irregularly irregular

:P waves: fibrillatory waves that all vary

Atrial fibrillation

Characterized by chaotic baseline between WRSs

:PRI not measurable

:QRS is less than 0.12 seconds

Premature ventricular contractions

Underlying rhythms is interrupted by wide QRS (greater than 0.12 seconds) not preceded by a P wave and has an inverted T

:Rate: that of the underlying rhythm

:Rhythm: regular rhythm is interrupted by PVC

:P waves: not associated with the PVC

Premature ventricular contractions

Underlying rhythm is interrupted by wide QRS so greater than 0.12 sec, and is not preceded by a P wave, and has an inverted T

:PR interval not measurable

:QRS is greater than 0.12 sec, premature, abnormal configuration,

Ventricular Tachycardia

Wide QRS occuring rapidly without P waves

:Rate of 140 to 300 bpm

:Rhythm is regular

:P waves not associated with QRS complexes

VVentricular tachycardia

Wide QRS occuring rapidly without P waves

:PR interval: not measurable

:QRS: abnormal and greater tthan 0.12 second in width

Ventricular fib

Chaotic rhythm, characterized by wavy irregular pattern

:Rate: none

:Rhythm, irregular, chaotic waves

:P waves: none

:PRI, non

:QRS: none or sporadic low amplitutde


Characterized by a straight or almost flat line

Rate: none

:Rhythm non

:P waves non

:PRI non

;QRS none

AV Heart block

General term: problems conducting impulses from the atrial to the ventricules

Blocks can occur at the AV node, bundle of His or the bundle branches

Complete heart block may be associated with hypotension

Milkder forms of heart block often cause no symptoms

First degree AV block

Looks like NSR but a prolonged PR interval (greater than 0.2 seconds)

:Rate: underlying rhythm rate

:Rhythm: regular

:P waves: normal, each preceding a QRS complex

Radiograph views

Standard views

:Anteroposterior (film behind your back, camera in front)

:Posterior anterior view

Special views

:Lateral decubitus

:Apical lordotic

:Oblique (side of lungs)


Anterior Posterior view

Indications for AP portable films

:Evaluate the lung status

:evaluate lines and tubers

:See results of invasive therapeutic maneuvers

:Portable chest film

Film cassette placed behind patients back

X ray beam moves from front to back

:anterior to posterior) 4 feet from beams origin

:More magnification artifact that PA Chest X ray

Evaluation of the chest radiograph

Recognition of anatomic landmarks

Review clinical finding before viewing CXR

Placing the chest film

:Patient facing clinician

:cardiac shadow more prominent


Penetration inversely proportional to density of structure

Normal lung density tissue has low density

:Cavities, blebs darkers

Consolidation increases density

:Pneumonia, tumer, collapse (white patch)

Greatest density in the chest: bones

Systemic review of all structures

:A through Z

Determine quality of the film

Visualize vertebral bodies through cardiac shadow

:If easily seen, overexposed, recognize rotation of the patient

SPnous processes to medial ends of clavicles

Degree of patients inspiratory effort

:10 posterior ribs on PA film

Silhouette Sign and air bronchogram

Silhouette sign

:infiltrate that obliterates heart border or

:diaphragm must be located in anterior segments of the lung

Air bronchogram

:visible bronchi when surrounded by consolidated alveoli

:Confirms intrapulmonary disease

Clinical and radiographic findings in lung disease



Interstitial lung disease


Compressive atelectasis

:pleural effusion, pneumothorax, hemomthorax

:If severe, mediastinal shift

Obstructive atelectasis

:Tumor, aspirated foreign body, mucus plugging

Posteroperative atelectasis


CXR: lung volume loss, mediastinal shift


Anatomic alterations of the lungs

Permanent enlarbement of alveoli

Results in dereased surface area for optimum gas exchange

Causes ventilation in excess of perfusion which is deadspace

Wasted ventilation

Distal airways, weakended in the process, then collapse during expiration

trapped gas is a result in the alveoli

This leads to increased alveolar deadspace increase Vd alv

Increase PaCO2

Alveolar ventilation and PaCO2 are inversely related


Alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency

Alpha 1 is secreted by the liver

When white blood cells are destroyed in the lungs the alpha 1 is released that destroys elastic tissue


Translucent (dark lung fields)

Density of the lungs decreases because of the air trapping

Decrease in the lung recoiling

Flattened diaphragms

Long narrow heart


Tall, thin young males

COPD with bullous dissease


:Broken ribs

:Puncture wound


Air enters pleural space

Pleura separate

Affected lung collapses

Tension pneumothorax is a medical emergency

Needs immidiate relief via tube thoracostomy

Pleural diagnostic evaluation

Size of pleural effusion

:To see on chest film

:200 cc




:Video assisted thoracic surgery



Insertion of needle into pleural space

:Use of local anesthetic

:sample for cell counts, cultures, chemistries, cytology and pH

Catheter placed

:If theres a lot of fluid to be drained

:Lung re expansion needed

Needle placed just superior to a rib

3 major risks

:intercostal artery laceration, infection, pneumothorax


Video assisted thoracic surgery

Local anesthesia and conscoius sedation

Thoracoscope placed through intercostal incision

:Visualization of lung surfaces

:drainage of pleural fluid

:Biopsy under direct visualization


Chyle in pleural space

:Milky appearance

:leakage of thoracic duct

Ruptures into pleural space


Blood in pleural space(usually occures cause of trauma)

Life threatening