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9 Cards in this Set

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LV hypertrophy

1) LV hypertrophy is increase in the muscle size of left ventricle

2) LV will increase when athlete trains aerobically this is because the hearts stimuli is increased and there is higher demand for blood to be distributed throughout the body.

3) Increase in preload and heart contractility

Constriction to active areas

1) Constriction to active areas is narrowing of vessels that supply blood to working muscles.

2) Constriction will decrease when performing aerobic training, this happens because increase in demand to active areas that are a part of endurance training.

3) Effect of this is decrease after-load.

VO2 max

1) Maximum load of oxygen one can use during aerobic activity measured in ml/kg/min

2) VO2 is increased when a person trains aerobically, this is a positive aspect and with this stroke volume also increases with many more health benefits.

3) Aerobic capacity increases with VO2 increase.

AVO2 diff

1) This is the difference in oxygen content of blood between arterial blood and venous blood and how much oxygen leaves capillaries.

2) This will increase when training aerobically, this is because of increase in blood flow to working muscles. Also increase in myoglobin inside of the muscle.

3) Increase VO2 max

Q max

1) Amount of blood pumped by heart per minute.

2) Q max increases when training aerobically due to increase in SV. HR contributes to Q max but does not occur at max training.

3) Result in increase in VO2 max.

Stroke volume

1) Amount of blood pumped pumped out of the LV of each heartbeat.

2) Training aerobically will increase Stroke volume, this is because of an increase in preload and decrease in after-load.

3) This will increase cardiac output.

Muscle blood flow

1) This is blood flow to working muscle at time of exercise carrying O2, nutrients, and eliminating waste products.

2) Muscle blood flow increases during aerobic training, this happens due to the increase of vasodiolation and distribution of blood to working muscles.

3) Results in an increase of AVO2 difference.


1) The ability for the heart to contract and produce force.

2) Training aerobically will increase contractility because of an increase in size of the left ventricle the stronger the heart the greater the contraction.

3) Results in increase in stroke volume.


1) EDV is the volume of blood in the right or left ventricle at the end of load or filling.

2) EDV increases with aerobic training, because of plasma volume increase and muscle pump increase.

3) Result in increase of SV.


1) The pressure which the heart must work against to eject blood during systole.

2) This decreases with aerobic training, this is due to decrease to constriction to active area with decrease after load more blood can pump each contraction.

3) Result in increase SV.

Adaptations o the muscle

1) Adaptations in the muscle are intramuscular changes that occur due to an increased stimulus.

2) Muscle adaptations occur when you train aerobically dude to the increase in mitochondria, and capillary recruitment.

3) Results in AVO2 difference to increase.


1) Norepinephrine is a catacholamine released from adrenal glands in SNS.

2) This hormone increases with aerobic training, because endurance training allows for a higher RMR along with increase of use of SNS.

3) Increase in CA2+ release.

SNS Activity

1) The sympathetic nervous system is one of the two systems on the ANS, responsible for fight or flight.

2) This increases with aerobic activity because increase activity of the brain.

3) Results of increase in SNS activity result in increase of norepinephrine and release in hormones.


1) Calcium is the mineral stored and released from SR in muscle fiber.

2) Calcium release increases endurance training, this is due to the increase in hormone activity along with SR being able to recycle calcium better and releasing it.

3) Results in increase in contractility.

Plasma volume

1) This is the colorless liquid portion of blood.

2) Plasma increases with aerobic training, this is due to increase in plasma proteins and increase in antidiuretic hormones, causing water retention.

3) Increase in preload is caused.

Brain CV center.

1) This controls heart beat via nervous system and endocrine system.

2) Increase of endurance training you see increase in CV activity. This is due to the amount of stress that endurance training puts on the heart.

3) Results in an increase in SNS activity.

Autogenic regulation

1) A process by which the product of a structural gene, controls the genes own expression.

2) Increase in autogenic regulation is seen with aerobic training, causes vasodilatation to occur resulting in increase demand for blood O2 delivery.

3) Results in increase in muscle blood flow and decrease in after-load.