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13 Cards in this Set

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Describe the adenovirus genome

Non-enveloped, dsDNA virus

What Baltimore Classification group does the Adenovirus belong to?

Group 1

What diseases do adenoviruses cause?

Common diseases of the Upper respiratory tract, such as fevers and pharyngitis, as well as pneumonia.

Describe the adenovirus phylogeny.

There are over 60 serotypes of adenovirus, ranging in 7 species named as hAdv-A, HAdv-B, etc...

HAdv-D contains the most types.

What are the 3 main mechanisms used to for the different types of adenovirus to lead to disease?

1. Different tissue specific receptors

2. Different proteins are used for gene expression

3. Different serotypes interact with the host immune system differently

What are the two somatic cell receptors for the adenovirus?

1. CAR for all species except HAdv-B

2. CD46 for HAdv-B

Describe how the adenovirus attaches and enters cells.

1. The knob domain of the virus fibre protein binds to one of the 2 receptors(CAR/CD46)

2. After this initial attachment, an exposed motif on the viral penton interacts with cell surface integrins

3. Virus enters cells via clathrin-dependent endocytosis

What are the somatic cell integrins?

Integrins are cell adhesion molecules that interact with the extracellular matrix, with low affinity so the cell is able to move through the extracellular matrix

What happens once the virus enters the cells?

All adenovirus mRNA is produced using host RNA polymerase.

1. The E1A gene is transcribed before any other genes

2. The E1A proteins force cells to actively replicate by interfering the Tumour Suppressing RB pathway

3. The E1B protein is then able to stably transform cells

What are the major antigenic regions of diversity of the adenovirus serotypes?

Capsid proteins:

1. Penton

2. Hexon

3. Fibre

Immunoevasion protein

1. E3 transcription unit

What does the E3 protein do in regards to the immune system?

The E3 protein prevents presentation of its antigens to MHC class I molecules. This limits the inflammatory response and the resultant cell killing

What is epidemic keratoconjunctivitis?

An inflammation of both the cornea and conjunctiva of the eye caused by HAdv-D serotypes. The serotypes that cause it are all cognate to the SA cell receptor, though it is found in most all subtypes. The infection itself is caused by a swapping of antigenic regions

How can adenovirus cause obesity?

It has been shown in those that previously had an adenovirus infection, some adenovirus serotypes may increase body fat cells and increase conversion of ingested food to fat cells, due to the presence of adenocirus D36 antibodies.