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49 Cards in this Set

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What are the main parts of an animal cell?



-Cell membrane



What is the main purpose for the nucleus?

It contains genetic material that controls the activities of the cell.

What is the main purpose for the cytoplasm?

It is a gel-like substance where most of the chemical reactions happen. It contains enzymes which control these chemical reactions.

What is the main purpose for the cell membrane?

It holds the cell together and controls what goes in and out of the cell.

What is the main purpose for the mitochondria?

These are where most of the reactions for respiration take place. Respiration releases energy that the cell needs to work.

What is the main purpose for the ribosomes?

These are when proteins are made in the cell. Protein-synthesis.

What extra parts does a plant cell have?

-A rigid cell wall

-Permanent vacuole


What is the main purpose for the cell wall?

It is made off cellulose. It supports the cell and strengthens it.

What is the main purpose for the Permanent vacuole?

It contains cell sap, a weak solution of sugar and salts.

What is the main purpose for the chloroplasts?

These are where the photosynthesis occurs, which makes food for the plant. They contain a green substance called chlorophyll.

What is a yeast cell and what does it contain?

a single celled micro-organism and it contains cell membrane, cytoplasm, cell wall and a nucleus.

What is a bacteria cell and what does it contain?

it is a single celled micro-organism and it contains cell membrane, cell wall, cytoplasm and genetic material but NO NUCLEUS.

What is diffusion?

Diffusion is the spreading out of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.

What molecules can diffuse through the cell membrane?

Only very small molecules, like water, oxygen, amino acids, and glucose.

What is the palisade leaf cell adapted to do?


How is the palisade leaf cell adapted?

-It is packed with chloroplasts for photosynthesis, they are all positioned at the top, so they're nearer the light.

-Tall shape meaning a larger surface area exposed down the side for absorbing CO2 from the air in the leaf.

-Thin shape means you can pack loads together at the top of the cell.

What is the Guard cell adapted to do?

Open and close pores.

How is the guard cell adapted?

-Special shape(kidney) which opens and closes the stomata.

-when the plant has a lot of water the cell fills and goes plump causes the the stomata to open so that gases can be exchanged for photosynthesis.

-thin outer walls and thickened inner walls make the opening and closing work.

What are the red blood cells adapted to do?

To carry oxygen.

How are the red blood cells adapted to carry oxygen?

-Concaved shape gives a big surface area for absorbing oxygen, also helps them pass through the capillaries smoothly.

-They are packed with haemoglobin- the pigment which absorbs the oxygen.

-They have no nucleus, to leave even more room for the haemoglobin.

What are the sperm and egg cells specialised for?


How is the egg cell specialised for reproduction?

-They need to carry the female DNA and to nourish the developing embryo. The egg cell contains huge food reserves to feed the embryo.

-When a sperm fuses with the egg, the egg's membrane instantly changes its structure to stop any more sperm from getting in to it. This makes sure the offspring end up with the right amount of DNA.

How is the sperm cell specialised for reproduction?

-The function of a sperm is basically to get the make DNA to the female DNA. It has a long tail and streamlined head to help it swim to the egg They contain a lot of mitochondria so that they can release the energy needed.

-Sperm also carry enzymes in their head to digest through the egg cell membrane.

What is the process of an organ system being made?

specialised cells form tissues, which form muscles, muscles form organs and they form organ systems.

What is a tissue?

A group of similar cells that work together to carry out a particular function. It can include more than one type of cell.

What are the three main types of tissues?




What is the use of Muscular tissue?

It moves the stomach wall to churn up the food.

what is the use of glandular tissue?

Makes the digestive juices to digest food.

what is the use of the epithelial tissue?

They cover the outside and inside of the stomach.

What is an organ?

A group of different tissues that work together to perform a certain function.

What are the organs which make up the digestive system?




-Small intestine

-Large intestine

What do Glands do?

Produce digestive juices.

What does the stomach do?

Digest food.

What does the liver do?

Produces bile.

What does the small intestine do?

Absorbs soluble food molecules.

What does the large intestine do?

Absorbs water from undigested food, leaving faeces.

What is a leaf made of?

Mesophyll tissue

xylem and phloem

Epidermis tissue

what does the mesophyll tissue do?

This is where most of the photosynthesis in a plant occurs.

What does the xylem and phloem do?

They transport things like water, mineral ions and sucrose around the plant.

What does the epidermal tissue do?

covers the whole plant.

what is the equation for photosynthesis?

carbon dioxide + water ----> Glucose + Oxygen

What is photosynthesis?

The process which produces food in plants and algaes.

What are the limiting factors which effect photosynthesis?

-The amount of light

-The temperature

-The amount of CO2

What is the most common artificial way to create the ideal environment for photosynthesis to take place?

-A greenhouse.

why is a greenhouse common?

-Because it traps the suns heat and make sure that the temperature doesnt become limiting.

-Artificial light is supplied.

-Paraffin heaters are used to control CO2 levels.

-Fertiliser is used to provide the minerals needed.

How does a plant use glucose?

-For respiration

-For making cell walls

-For making protein

-For storing seeds

-For storing starch

What are the environmental factors which affect where an organism is found?


-Water availability

-Oxygen and carbon dioxide availability

-Nutrients availability

-Amount of light.

why and how are quadrats used?

they are thrown randomly onto a patch of land and then the amount of organisms that are in it are calculated by finding the mean.

How is a transect used?

a line is marked out in the area you want to study, then collect data along the line. you do this by just counting all the organisms youre looking at along the line OR you place quadrats along it at equal intervals.