Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

103 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the symptoms and signs of mental illness, including such phenomena as depressed mood, panic attacks, and bizarre beliefs
Abnormal Psychology
application of psychological science to the study of mental disorders
refers to several types of severe mental disorder in which the person is considered to be out of contact with reality
a group of symptoms that appear together and are assumed to represent a specific type of disorder
Harmful Dysfunction
Jerome Wakefield
1) The condition results from the inability of some internal mechanism to perform its natural function
2) The condition causes some harm to the person as judged by the standards of that person’s culture
defined in terms of values, beliefs, and practices shared by a specific community of group of people
number of new cases of a disorder that appear in a population during a specific period of time
the total number of active cases, both old and new, that are present in a population during a specific period of time
the presence of more than one condition within the same period of time
Disease Burden
(Epidemiologists) mortality and disability
a set of shared assumptions that includes both the substance of a theory and beliefs about how scientists should collect data and test the theory
Biopsychosocial model
an integrated method of explaining mental disorders.
Psychoanalytic Theory
based around the idea that many memories, motivations, and protective psychological processes are unconscious
present at birth and houses biological drives such as hunger as well as SEX and AGGRESSION
the part of the personality that must deal with the realities of the world as it attempts to fulfill the id impulses as well as perform other functions
Defense Mechanisms
unconscious self-deceptions that reduce conscious anxiety by distorting anxiety-producing memories, emotions, and impulses
Reaction formation: converting a painful feeling to its exact opposite
Sublimation: diverting id impulses into constructive outlets
Medulla: heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, etc.
Pons: sleep regulation
Cerebellum: coordination of physical movement
some motor activity, especially relating to sex or fighting
sensory, emotional, and cognitive processes
Limbic system
connects all sections of the brain; regulates emotion and basic learning processes
controls basic biological urges (eating, drinking, and sexual activity)
the brain has 4 connected chambers filled with cerebrospinal fluid
the study of changes in the functioning of the body that result from psychological experiences
Somatic Nervous System
governs muscle control (voluntary)
Autonomic Nervous System
regulates functions of organs (involuntary)
characteristic styles of relating with the world
Openness to experience
Erikson's Stages
Basic Trust v. Basic Mistrust (0-2)
Autonomy v. Shame and Doubt (1-3)
Industry v. Inferiority (2-6)
Identity v. Role Confusion (5-12)
Intimacy v. Role Confusion (11-20)
Intimacy v. Self-absorption (18-30)
Generativity v. Stagnation (25-70)
Integrity v. Despair (65 and on)
Categorical Approach to Classification
A difference of kind not ammount
Dimensional Approach to Classification
describes the objects of classification in terms of continuous dimensions
Etiological Validity
factors that contribute to the onset of the disorder (consistent?)
Concurrent Validity
concerned with the present time and with correlations b/w the disorder and other symptoms, circumstance, and test procedures
Predictive Validity
concerned with the future and stability of the problem over time
Culture-bound syndromes
Patterns of erratic or unusual thinking and behavior that have been identified in diverse societies around the world and do not fit easily into the other diagnositc categories that are listed in the main body of the DSM-IV-TR
Indicates the proportion of aggreement b/w clinicians, indicating what proportion of agreement is above and beyond chance
consistency of measurements
the meaning or importance of a measurement
Etiological validity
concerne with factors that contribute to the onset of the disorder
Concurrent validity
concerned with the present time and with correlations between the disorder and other symptoms, circumstances and test procedures
Predictive validity
concerned with the future and with the stability of the problem over time
branch of medicine that is concerned with the study and treatment of mental disorders
CLinical psychology
concerned with the application of psychological science to the assessment and treatment of mental disorders
Social Work
concerned with helping people to achieve an effective level of psychosocial functioning
the use of psychological techniques and the therapist-client relationship to produce emotional, cognitivem and behavior change
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
Inducing seizure by passing electricity through the brain
surgical destruction of specific regions of the brain
the study of the use of medications to treat psychological disturbances
Psychotropic medications
chemical substances that affect psycholocial state
bringing formerly unconscious material into conscious awareness
analyst suggests hidden meanings to patients' accounts of their past and present life
patients transfer their feelings about some key figure in their life onto the shadowy figure of the analyst
Psychodynamic psychotherapy
often includes more engaged and directive therapists and briefer treatment time
the view that appropriate focus of psychological study is observable behavior, not unobservable cognitive or emotional states
Systematic desensitization
a technique for eliminating fears that has 3 key elements:
1)relaxation using progressive muscle relaxations
2)construction of a hierarchy of fears
3)learning process (pair responses)
Aversion therapy
the use of classical conditioning to create an unpleasant response
Contingency management
operant conditioning technique that directly changes rewards and punishments for indientified behaviors
Token Economy
desired and undesired behaviors are clearly identified, contingencies are defined, behavior is carefully monitored, and rewards or punishments are given according to the rules
Social Skills Training
teaching clients new ways of behaving that are both desireable and likey to be rewarded in everyday life
Cognitive therapy
the belief that disorders are caused by flaws in thinking (BECK)
Rational-emotive therapy (RET)
enotional disorders are caused by irrational beliefs; impossiility of such must be pointed out (ELlis)
Humanistic psychotherapy
people are able to make choices and determine their future; each of us are responsible for finding meaning in our lives
intentionally revealing aspects of the therapist's own similar feelings and experiences
Therapeutic alliance
a therapist's caring, concern, and respect for the individual
Placebo effect
the powerful healing produced by apparently inert treatments
Psychotherapy process research
what aspects of the therapist-client relationship predict better outcome
Primary prevention
tries to improve the environment in order to prevent new cases of a mental disorder from developing
Secondary prevention
focuses on the early detection of emotional problems in the hope of preventing them from becoming a serious threat or difficult to treat
Tertiary prevention
Occurs after the illness has been identified
Types of Assessment Procedures
Observational procedures,
Personality tests and self-report inventories,
Projective personality tests
people alter their behavior, either intentionally or unintentionally, when they know that they are being observed
Actuarial interpretation
analysis of a specific test on the basis of an explicit set of rules that are derived from empircial analysis
Case study
an in-depth look at the symptoms and circumstances surrounding one person's mental disturbance
Clinical Syndromes; diagnostic label for the patient's most serious psych problems for which diagnosis is made
Personality Disorders or Mental Retardation; any long-term disorder not covered in Axis I
General Medical Disorders (which might have relevance to psychological problem)
Psychosocial and Environmental Problems; current social, occupational, environmental, or other problems contributing or resulting from psychological problems
Global Assessment of Functioning; how a person has dealt with a disorder in the past year
Wakefield's Harmful Dysfunction Concept
1) results from dysfunction concept
2) causes harm to a person
DSM-IV-TR Definitions for Psychopathology
1) Present distress
2) Disability (impairment in 1 or more important areas)
3) Signif risk of suffering death, pain, disability, or important loss of freedom
Internal Consistency
Do different parts of the test yield the same results?
Test-retest Reliabilty
Does the test yield the same results when administered to the same person at different times?
Interjudge Reliability
Does the test yield the same results when scored or interpreted by different judges?
Content Validity
the extent to which the test elicits a range of responses over the range of skills, understanding, or behavior the test measures
Face Validity
If it looks like a measure of skill or knowledge that it's suppose to measure
Criterion-related Validity
Depends upon relating test scores to performance on some relevant criterion or set of criteria
Concurrent Validity
Criterion available at the time of testing confirms results
Predictive Validity
Criterion not available at the time of testing but which measures scores in the future is anticipated by the test
Construct Validity
The extent to which a test measures the construct it claims to measure
Automatic Thoughts
Beck--> I am worthless, Everyone hates me, etc.
Arbitary Inference
Drawing unwarrented conclusions on the basis of little or no evidence
Selective Abstraction
Drawing conclusions on the basis of a single piece of data while ignoring contradictory data
Drawing a general conclusion on the basis of a single, sometimes insignificant, event
Magnification or Minimization
Overestimating the importance of (-) events and/or underestimating the imp. of (+) events
Taking the blame for something that is clearly not one's fault
Positive Reinforcement
"Stamping in" any behavior by using a desired reinforcer as a reward
Negative Reinforcement
"Stamping in" any behavior by removing an aversive stimulus when behavior occurs (alarm in morning)
Aversive stimulus given as a result of an undesired behavior in an attempt to suppress that behavior in the future
Suppressing behavior by removing reinforcers
In Vivo Systematic Desensitvation
Gradual exposure to feared stimulus while maintaining a relaxed state
Flooding S.D.
Full intensity while preventing avoidance until conditioned response is extinguished
Aversive Therapy
Strategy to decrease negative effect of stimulus (feel sick when drinking)
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness and love needs, esteem, cognitive, aesthetic, and self actualization
Client Centered Therapy
Unconditioned (+) regard, warmth and empathy, open therapist, non-directive
Five Classes of Psychotropic Drugs
Antianxiety, antipsychotic, antimanic, sedative, and antidepressant