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62 Cards in this Set

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Bulimia Nervosa

An eating disorder. recurrent episodes of binge eating followed by purging

Autism spectrum disorder

ASD, a spectrum of autism-related disorders varying in level of severity. There may be impaired functioning; marked deficits relating to others; impaired language and cognitive functioning; restricted range of activities and interests.

Risk factors for disorders of childhood

genetic susceptibilityenvironmental stressors family factors children of depressed parentsethnicity and gender physical and sexual abuse and neglect


Conduct Disorder

Antisocial behavior that violates social norms and the rights of others.

Attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder

ADHD, patterns of disturbed behavior that are generally disruptive to others and to adaptable social functioning. Problems of impulsivity, inattention, and hyperactivity.

Oppositional Defiant Disorder

pattern of noncompliant, negativistic, or oppositional behavior

Anorexia nervosa

An eating disorder. self-starvation, resulting in abnormally low body weight for one’s age, gender, height, and physical health and developmental level.

Separation Anxiety Disorder

In children is diagnosed when the level of fear or anxiety associated with separation from a caregiver or attachment figure is persistent and excessive or inappropriate for the child’s developmental level.

Transference Relationship

Considered an important component of psychoanalysis. It provides a vehicle for the reenactment of childhood conflicts with parents. They may react with the same feelings of anger, love, or jealousy they felt with their own parents.

Countertransference

Feelings that the therapist maybe projected onto the client.

Types of Psychotherapy

Licensed Marriage & Family Therapist (LMFT)


-psychology


-clinical psychology


Counseling psychology


-marriage & family counseling


Licensed Clinical Social Worker (LCSW)


-Social worker


Clinical Psychologist


-doctor of philosophy(PhD)


-doctor of psychology


Psychiatrist


medicine (m.d.)


Psychodynamic Therapy

A general term referring to forms of psychotherapy based on the Freudian tradition hat seeks to help people gain insight into, and resolve, the dynamic struggles or conflicts between forces within the unconscious mind believed to lie at the root of abnormal behavior.

Freudian psychoanalysis

He used to treat people with psychological disorders. First form of psychodynamic therapy

Resistence

Or unwillingness or inability to recall or discuss disturbing or threatening material

Manifest/ Latent dream content

Manifest content: the material of the dream the dreamer experiences and reports


Latent content: the unconscious material the dream symbolizes or represents

Free Association

The process of expressing whatever thoughts come to mind

Object Relations Psychotherapy

Focus on helping people separate their own ideas and feelings from the elements of significants other they have incorporated or introjected onto themselves

Behavior therapy

The systematic application of the principles learning to the treatment of psychological disorders. Focus on changing behavior, not on personality change or deep probing into the past. Also uses reinforcement techniques based on operant conditioning to shape desired behavior.

Systematic desensitiztion

Involves a therapeutic program of exposure of the client (in imagination or by means of pictures or slides) took progressively more fearful stimuli while he or she remains deeply relaxed.

Modeling

Individuals learn desired behaviors by observing others performing them.

Aversive conditioning

Used in the treatment of substance abuse problems such as smoking and alcoholism

Humanistic therapy

Focus on clients' subjective, conscious experiences. Is nondirective, the client,MIT the therapist takes the lead.

Rodgers' Person centered therapy

Creates conditions of warmth and acceptance in the therapeutic relationship that help clients become more aware and accepting of their true selves. Therapists should not impose their own goals, but focus on the person

Four basic qualities of person centered therapy

Unconditional positive regard - the therapist must be unconditional accepting of the client as a person, even if the therapist sometimes finds e client's choices choices or behaviors to be objectionable.


Empathy - able to accurately reflect or mirror their clients' experience and feelings.


Genuineness - the ability to be open about one's feelings


Congruence - the coherence or fit amoung one's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors.

Cognitive therapy

Focuses on helping clients identify and correct faulty thinking, distorted beliefs, and self-defeating attitudes that create or contribute to emotional problems

Ellis' rational emotive behavior therapy

Negative emotions like anxiety and depression are caused by the irrational ways in which we interpret or judge negative events, not by the negative events themselves. Therapist actively dispute clients' irrational beliefs and the premises of which they are based and help clients develop alternative, adaptive beliefs in their place.

Beck's cognitive therapy

Focus on helping people change faulty or distorted thinking. It encourages their clients to recognize and change errors in thinking, Cognitive distortions.

Cognitive-Behavior Therapy

Attempts to integrate therapeutic techniques that help individuals make changes not only in their overt behavior but also in their underlying thoughts, beliefs, and attitudes.


Attempts to integrate therapeutic techniques that help individuals make changes not only in their overt behavior but also in their underlying thoughts, beliefs, and attitudes.


Attempts to integrate therapeutic techniques that help individuals make changes not only in their overt behavior but also in their underlying thoughts, beliefs, and attitudes.

Group Therapy

A group of clients meets together with a therapist or a pair of therapist. It can be less costly to individual clients, some believe its more effective, they learn to work through their problems while relating to others.

Family theraapy

The family, not the individual, is the unit of treatment. Its aim is to help troubled families resolve their conflicts and problems so the family functions better as a unit and individual family members are subjected to less stress from family conflicts.

Couple therapy

Focuses on resolving conflicts in distressed couples, including married and unmarried couples. Focuses on improving communication and analyzing role relationships

Biomedical therapies

All the drugs in these classes act on neurotransmitters systems in the brain, affecting the delicate balance of chemicals that ferry nerve impulses from neuron to neuron.

Antidepressants

Four major classes:


- tricyclics (TCA)


-monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors


-selective serotonin- reuptake inhibitors (SSRis)


-serotonin-norepinephine reuptake inhibitors


TCA and MAOs increase the availability of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and serotonin I'm the brain

Lithium

A salt of the metal lithium in tablet form, help treat manic symptoms and stabilize mood swings in people with bipolar disorder

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)

An electric shock is sent through the patient's brain, sufficient to induce convulsions of type found epilepsy patients.

Psychosurgury

Most common was the prefrontal lobotomy. It involves surgically severing nerve pathways linking the thalamus to the prefrontal lobes of the brain

Psychological Assessment

Reliability- consistency Validity- assessments must measure what they intend to measure-Content Validity- the degree to which its content represents the behaviors associated with the trait in question -Criterion Validity- the degree to which the assessment technique correlates with an independent, external criterion (standard) of what the technique is intended to assess. Construct Validity- the degree to which a test corresponds to the theoretical model of the underlying construct or trait it purports to measure.


Clinical interview

most widely used means of assessment. Usually the clinician’s first face-to-face contact with a client. Clinicians usually begin by asking clients to describe the presenting complaint in their own words. Usually cover the following:1. Identifying data2. Description of the presenting problem(s)3. Psychosocial History4. Medical/ psychiatric history5. Medical problems/ medication Mental Status Exam


Standard-Binet Intelligence Test

an intelligence test consisting of memory tasks and other short tests of mental abilities that children were likely to encounter in daily life, later versions also were made more adults

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale

are designed to offer insight into a person’s relative strengths and weaknesses, not to simply yield an overall score. It includes subtests of verbal skills, perceptual reasoning, working memory, and processing speed.

Objective Tests

self report personality inventories that use items similar to the ones just listed to measure personality traits such as emotional instability, masculinity/femininity, and introversion. Under personality tests.

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory

contains more than 567 true-false statements that assess interests, habits, family relationships, physical health complaints, attitudes, beliefs, and behavior characteristics of psychological disorders.

Millon Clinical Multitaxial Inventory

was developed to help clinicians formulate diagnoses, especially for personality disorders. Its the only objective personality test that focuses specifically on personality disorders.

Projective Tests

offers no clear, specified response options. These tests derive from the psychodynamic belief that people impose, or “project”, their own psychological needs, drives, and motives onto their interpretations of ambiguous stimuli

Rorschach Inkblot Tests

developed by Swiss psychiatrist, Hermann Rorschach. 10 are used today, in order to reflect their personalities as well as the stimulus cues provided by the blot. People who see movement in the blots may be revealing intelligence and creativity.

Thematic Apperception Test

Psychologist Henry Murray in 1930. interpreting (new ideas or impressions) on the basis of existing ideas (cognitive structures) and past experience. It consists of a series of cards, each depicting an ambiguous scene.

EEG

Physiological measurement. a record of the electrical activity of the brain. It detects minute amounts of electrical activity in the brain, or brain waves, which are conducted between electrodes placed on the scalp

CAT Scan

Computerized Axial Tomography , reveals abnormalities in brain shape and structure that may be suggestive of lesions, blood clots, or tumors. The computer enables scientists to integrate the measurements into a three-dimensional picture of the brain.

PET Scan

Positron Emission Tomography, is used to study the functioning of various parts of the brain. A small amount of a radioactive compound or tracer is mixed with glucose and injected into the bloodstream. When it reaches the brain it shows patterns of neural activity by measurement of the positrons emitted by the tractor

MRI

Magnetic Resonance Imaging, the person is placed in a donut-shaped tunnel that generates a strong magnetic field. Radio waves of certain frequencies are then directed at the head, which then emits signals that can be measured from several angles.

Binge eating

recurrent binge eating without compensatory purging.

Causal factors in anerexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa

Typically begins in adolescence, affects more females than men. Their linked to preoccupations with weight control and maladaptive ways f trying to keep weight down. Other factors include social pressures, issues of control, underlying psychological problems, and conflict withing family , especially over issues of autonomy.

Treatments for eating disorders

Severe cases of anorexia are often treated in an inpatient setting where a refeeding regimen can be closely monitored. Psychotherapy and family therapy help the most. Most cases of bulimia are treated on an outpatient basis, with evidence supporting therapeutic benefits of cognitive-behavior therapy(CBT), interpersonal psychotherapy, and antidepressant medication. CBT antidepressant medication have been shown to be effective in treating BED.

Delirium

a state of extreme mental confusion in which people have difficulty focusing their attention, speaking clearly and coherently, and orienting themselves to the environment. Has difficulty filtering out irrelevant stimuli or shifting attention; excited speech that conveys little meaning. Disorientation, motor behavior may slow.

Dementia

“Major Neurocognitive Disorder”, profound deterioration of mental functioning. Most forms, such as dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease, are irreversible and progressive. Significant declines in cognitive abilities.

Neurocognitive disorders due to Alzheimer's disease

a degenerative brain disease that leads to progressive and irreversible dementia, characterized by memory loss and deterioration of other cognitive functions, including judgement and ability to reason.

Neurocognitive disorder due to Traumatic brain injury

it may cause progressive dementia due from multiple head traumas than from a single blow or head traumaConcussion- blow to the headContusionLaceration- an object penetrates the brain

Neurocognitive disorders due to Parkinson's disease

a slowly progressing neurological disease of unknown cause affecting 500,000 to 1 million people in the U.S. affects men and women equally. Characterized by uncontrollable shaking or tremors, rigidity, disturbances in posture, and lack o control over body movements.

Neurocognitive disorders due to HIV Infection

the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes AIDS, can invade the central nervous system and cause a minor or major neurocognitive disorder. Major cognitive- its effect includes forgetfulness, impaired concentration, and problem-solving ability. Dementia is rare in people with HIV who have not yet developed full-blown AIDS. Behavioral features include apathy and social withdrawal, as it progresses it grows more severe, taking the form if delusions, disorientation, further impairment in memory and thinking processes, and perhaps even delirium,

Vascular Neurocognitive Disorders

known as Vascular Dementia or Multi-infarct dementia. a form of major or mild neurocognitive disorder resulting from cerebrovascular events (strokes) affecting the brain. Symptoms are similar to dementia due to Alzheimer’s, including impaired memory and language ability, agitation and emotional instability, and loss of ability to care for one’s own basic needs.

Substances/ medication-induced cerebrovascular disorder

the use of, or withdrawal from, psychoactive substances or medications can impair brain functioning in many ways, leading to minor or major neurocognitive disorders.

Korsakoff's syndrome

involves irreversible memory loss due to brain damage resulting from deficiency of vitamin B1(thiamine). Its associated with chronic alcoholism because alcohol abusers tend to take poor care of their nutritional needs and may not follow a diet rich enough in vitamin B1, or their alcohol-soaked livers may not be able to metabolize the vitamin efficiently