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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the central nervous system's physiological and emotional response to a serious threat to one's well-being
the central nervous system's physiological and emotional response to a vague sense of threat or danger
generalized anxiety disorder
a disorder marked by persistent and excessive feelings of anxiety and worry about numerous events and activities
client-centered therapy
the humanistic therapy developed by Carl Rogers in which clinicians try to help clients by being accepting, empathizing accurately, and conveying genuineness
basic irrational assumption
the inaccurate and inappropriate beliefs held by people with various psychological problems, according to Albert Ellis
rational-emotive therapy
a cognitive therapy developed by Albert Ellis that helps clients identify and change the irrational assumptions and thinking that help cause their psychological disorder
family pedigree study
a research design in which investigators determine how many and which relatives of a person with a disorder have the same disorder
the most common group of antianxiety drugs, which includes Valium and Xanax
the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid whose low activity has been linked to generalized anxiety disorder
sedative-hypnotic drugs
drugs that calm people at lower doses and help them to fall asleep at higher doses
relaxation training
a treatment procedure that teaches clients to relax at will so they can calm themselves in stressful situations
a technique in which a client is given information about physiological reactions as they occur and learns to control the reactions voluntarily
electromyograph (EMG)
a device that provides feedback about the level of muscular tension in the body
a persistent and unreasonable fear of a particular object, activity, or situation
specific phobia
a severe and persistent fear of a specific object or situation (other than agoraphobia and social phobia)
classical conditioning
a process of learning in which two events that repeatedly occur close together in time become tied together in a person's mind and so produce the same respons
a process of learning in which a person observes and then imitates others; also, a therapy approach based on the same principle
stimulus generalization
a phenomenon in which responses to one stimulus are also produced by similar stimuli
a predisposition to develop certain fears
exposure treatments
behavioral treatments in which persons are exposed to the objects or situations they dread
systematic desensitization
a behavioral treatment that uses relaxation training and a fear hierarchy to help clients with phobias react calmly to the objects or situations they dread
a treatment for phobias in which clients are exposed repeatedly and intensively to a feared object and made to see that it is actually harmless
social phobia
a severe and persistent fear of social or performance situations in which embarrassment may occur. Also known as social anxiety disorder
social skills training
a therapy approach that helps people learn or improve social skills and assertiveness through role playing and rehearsing of desirable behaviors
panic attacks
periodic, short bouts of panic that occur suddenly, reach a peak within minutes, and gradually pass
panic disorder
an anxiety disorder marked by recurrent and unpredictable panic attacks
an anxiety disorder in which a person is afraid to be in places or situations from which escape might be difficult (or embarrassing) or help unavailable if panic-like symptoms were to occur
a neurotransmitter whose abnormal activity is linked to panic disorder and depression
locus ceruleus
a small area of the brain that seems to be active in the regulation of emotions. Many of its neurons use norepinephrine.
a small, almond-shaped structure in the brain that processes emotional information
biological challenge test
a procedure used to produce panic in participants or clients by having them exercise vigorously or perform some other potentially panic-inducing task in the presence of a researcher or therapist
anxiety sensitivity
a tendency to focus on one's bodily sensations, assess them illogically, and interpret them as harmful
a persistent thought, idea, impulse, or image that is experienced repeatedly, feels intrusive, and causes anxiety
a repetitive and rigid behavior or mental act that a person feels driven to perform in order to prevent or reduce anxiety
obsessive-compulsive disorder
a disorder in which a person has recurrent and unwanted thoughts, a need to perform repetitive and rigid actions, or both.
an ego defense mechanism in which people unconsciously isolate and disown undesirable and unwanted thoughts, experiencing them as foreign intrustion
an ego defense mechanism whereby a person unconsciously cancels out an unacceptable desire or act by performing another act
reaction formation
an ego defense mechanism whereby a person suppresses an unacceptable desire by taking on a lifestyle that expresses the opposite desire
exposure and response prevention
a behavioral treatment for OCD that exposes a client to anxiety-arousing thoughts or situations and then prevents the client from performing his or her compulsive acts. Also called exposure and ritual prevention
a person's attempt to eliminate unwanted thoughts by thinking or behaving in ways that put matters right internally, making up for the unacceptable thoughts
a neurotransmitter whose abnormal activity is linked to depression, OCD, and eating disorders
orbitofrontal cortex
a region of the brain in which impulses involving excretion, sexuality, violence, and other primitive activities normally arise
caudate nuclei
structures in the brain, within the region known as the basal ganglia, that help convert sensory information into thoughts and actions
stress management program
an approach to treating generalized and other anxiety disorders that teaches clients techniques for reducing and controlling stress