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43 Cards in this Set

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Disner et al '11

Process-based diagnosis, internal and early-life-dependent processing schemas influence perceptions


Reinforcement of schemas

Fruzzetti & Worrall '10

Emotional vulnerability when event occurs, inaccurate expression in response, repeating cycle of invalidating responses

Cannon '42

Physical manifestations of stress - friend who ate a meat that wasn't allowed under his religion, friend told him about it decades later, the man was dead within 24 hours due to stress response

Fisher & Good '09

Model of Feminism:


1. Passive Acceptance


2. Re-evaluation


3. Connectedness


4. Synthesis


5. Active Commitment

Glicke & Fiske '01

Model of Feminism:


Benevolent vs. Hostile

Franklin '04

First to discuss microaggressions

Goff '14

By age 9, people of color are seen as a source of fear

Williams '14

African American, Latino children who have a positive sense of identity are less likely to


experience anxiety/depression or end up in trouble with school/legal system


Postulate: they've learned how to cope with


microaggressions

Cicchetti '99

Developmental psychopathology model


Cognitive, biological, socio-emotional,


representational

Gilbert '09

3 types of affect regulation
fight = dopamine
flight = cortisol
relaxation = oxytocin

Frederickson '03

9/11 studies with coping strategies


Problem-focused: seek social support


Emotions-focused: positive reappraisal


(most effective coping strategies for people w PTSD after 9/11)

Vaillant '00

Levels of defense mechanisms (hierarchy of function, not developmental theory)


1. Psychotic - distort reality


2. Immature - change perception of stressor


3. Neurotic - change emotion/internal feeling


4. Mature - internalize problem

Bowlby '82

Formulated attachment theory (harkening back to Freud's ideas) - attachment w mother figure sets schema for internal mechanisms later in life


Secure, avoidant insecure, ambivalent insecure, disorganized (Hess & Main '00)

Fraley et al '06

College students saying goodbye in airport

Main '85

"What would happen if you were lost?"

Racial/Ethnic Cultural Development


(Assimilation)

1. Conformity


2. Dissonance


3. Resistance & Immersion


4. Introspection


5. Integrative

Mineka & Zinbarg '06

92% of social phobics have been bullied to some degree (social reinforcement or observational learning)


Specific social phobia vs. general social phobia

Bockstael et al '14, Tibboel et al '14

GAD - attention bias in anxiety (bias towards threat), maladaptive strategy


training patient to attend away from threat


reduces anxiety risk

Cummigs et al '14

GAD, social anxiety, and separation anxiety may predispose someone for depression


Cognitive vulnerability: "I am helpless" "I am worthless"

Pennebaker '99

Adaptive personal narrative: positive, linear, coherent - working through trauma, NOT a victim


Maladaptive personal narrative: fear/anger, withdrawal, sustains dissociation, feeling like a victim becomes focus

Carolyn Mazur '98 (Yale)

Looked at types/frequency of loss that led to depression


Individuals that sustain 1+ major losses in life more likely to develop


(child/lover/family member dies, partner is unfaithful, loss of social recognition)



Blatt & Colleagues

Insecure ambivalent -> dependent depression


(stressor is loss)


Insecure avoidant ->self-critical depression


(stressor is failure)

David Bakan '66 (Yale)

personality on a continuum


dependency ------ agency


research suggests we should be more in the middle

Beck '79

Cognitive Triad for Depression


1. Negative cognitions (self, world, future)


2. Negative schemas


3. Errors in logic (arbitrary interference,


overgeneralization, selective abstraction,


magnification of bad, personalization)

Weiner '79

Global depression: stable, internal,


"I am incapable always"


Specific depression: unstable, external,


momentary, much more common way of


expressing

Gotlib & Joorman '10

Development of depression: three interlocking mechanisms


1. deficits in working memory


2. ruminative responses


3. inability to use positive/rewarding info to regulate one's negative mood

Gratx '00, '03

Self injury research:


looking for solution


chronic, often late at night


creates relief (self-soothing)


level of arousal spikes and then drops


dramatically - can tolerate a lot of pain to


experience the relief

Goldstan et al '03

Research findings for suicide risk:


psychological pain


family depression


bipolar disorder (19%),


borderline disorder (10-15%)


schizophrenia


19% success rate


17% of US high school students say they've seriously considered it

Beautrais et al '97

Research on suicide risk


- lack of social support


- impulse control problems


- interpersonal loss leading to isolation

Knox '03 (clinical psychologist working at Yale)

Warning signs of suicidality:


- threatening to hurt/kill themselves


- trying to access pills/firearms


- talking/writing about death


- extreme, out-of-proportion rage reactions


- a lot of high-risk behavior


- dramatic mood changes


- talking about suicide

Talarico & Rubin '07

studied Americans who hadn't personally


witnessed 9/11 -


memory degraded with time, but confidence in the accuracy of their memory didn't

Hirst '07

If you ask something that occurred vs.


something autobiographical, same degree of


deterioration

Phelps '04

If amygdala is aroused, memory is accurately


retained


(people in Lower Manhattan had activated amygdalas when recounting 9/11, no


deterioration of memory)

Hotalin & Sugarman '90

Significant affect to domestic violence:


60-70% of boys likely to become perps as adults


30% of girls likely to become victims


simply seeing domestic abuse enough

Bornstein '06

Gender difference in domestic abuse - woman is often financially dependent on man (man may seek out financially dependent woman)


Man is emotionally dependent on woman


Man has trouble articulating anger

Babcock '96

In abusive relationship: one person who has trouble communicating anger, one willing to back away and acquiesce

Linehan '93

Characteristics of invalidating environments

Putnam '92

Young teenage girls who had been victims of sexual abuse had 2-3 times normal sex


hormones, earlier onset of puberty, medical problems, many were cutters, higher incidence of depression, eating disorders, suicidality

Fagan '02

Victims of sexual abuse have high incidence of sexual abuse, high anxiety and neuroticism, low self-esteem, personality disorders

Robert Kepel

Serial killer signatures:


- asserting power to dominate victim


- asserting power, want victim to like what's happening


- murder retaliatory, rape and murder


- power/control - intent to create pain

Polimeni & Reiss '07

Schizophrenics don't get jokes

Romme

high percentage of correlation between patients hearing voices and experiencing trauma


- rescuer


- self-loathing


- visionary


- misceonic


each serves a function/grows out of a particular kind of abuse



Zimbardo '02

central characteristic of schizophrenia is that someone is experiencing discontinuity, trying to fill in the gap