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91 Cards in this Set

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a characteristic of an organism that increases its chance of survivalin its environment


the layers of gas that surround Earth, other planets, or stars


the smallest unit of a chemical element that can still retain theproperties of that element


the imaginary line on which an object rotates (e.g., Earth’s axis runsthrough Earth between the North Pole and the South Pole); animaginary straight line that runs through a body; a reference to theline in a coordinate system or graph


an animal or plant that consumes or obtains nutrients from animals

change of state

a physical change that occurs when matter changes to another state(i.e., liquid, gas, or solid)

chemical change

a reaction or a change in a substance produced by chemical meansthat results in producing a different chemical


all the populations of organisms belonging to different species andsharing the same geographical area


a substance made up of a combination of two or more elements heldtogether by chemical bonds that cannot be separated by physicalmeans; has properties unlike those of the elements that make up thecompound


the process of changing from a gas (i.e., water vapor) to a liquid(i.e., dew); the act of making more dense or compact


controlled use and/or maintenance of natural resources; variousefforts to preserve or protect natural resources


a star pattern identified and named as a definite group; usuallythought of as forming certain shapes or figures in a specific regionof the sky


an organism that feeds on other organisms for food


any organism that feeds or obtains nutrients by breaking downorganic matter from dead organisms


concentration of matter of an object; number of individuals in thesame species that live in a given area; the mass per unit volume of asubstance in a given area


layering matter in a natural process (similar to the word deposit; to put down)


the shaking of the ground caused by a sudden release of energy inEarth’s crust


an integrated unit of a biological community, its physicalenvironment, and interactions


a substance that cannot be reduced to a simpler substance bychemical means


a quantity that describes the capacity to do work; a source of usablepower

energy pyramid

a pyramidal diagram that compares the amount of energy availableat each position, or level, in the feeding order

energy transfer

a change of energy from one form to another (e.g., mechanical toelectrical, solar to electrical)


the sum of conditions affecting an organism, including all living andnonliving things in an area, such as plants, animals, water, soil,weather, landforms, and air


an imaginary circle around Earth’s surface located between the polesand a plane perpendicular to its axis of rotation that divides it into theNorthern and Southern Hemispheres


the wearing away of Earth’s surface by the breakdown andtransportation of rock and soil


the process by which a liquid is converted to its vapor phase byheating the liquid


a procedure that is carried out and repeated under controlledconditions in order to discover, demonstrate, or test a hypothesis;includes all components of the scientific method

food chain

transfer of energy through various stages as a result of feedingpatterns of a series of organisms

food web (food cycle)

the interconnected feeding relationships in a food chain found in aparticular place and time


a quality that tends to produce movement or acceleration of a body inthe direction of its application; a push or pull


a whole or part of a plant or animal that has been preserved insedimentary rock


a force that opposes the relative motion of two material surfaces incontact with one another


the pivot point of a lever


a large collection of stars, gases, and dust that are part of the universe(e.g., the Milky Way galaxy) bound together by gravitational forces


one of the fundamental states of matter in which the molecules donot have a fixed volume or shape


a force of attraction between two masses


the observed effect of the force of gravitation, caused by the mass (amount of matter) in an object.


a place in an ecosystem where an organism normally lives


a form of energy resulting from the temperature difference between asystem and its surroundings


an animal that feeds on plants

igneous rock

a type of rock that forms from molten or partly molten material thatcools and hardens

inclined plane

a type of simple machine; a slanted surface that makes it easier tomove a mass from a lower point to a higher point


the property of a body, due to its mass, that causes it to resist anychange in its motion unless overcome by a force


a procedure that is carried out in order to observe a response causedby a stimulus; not a complete experiment

kinetic energy

the energy possessed by a body because of its motion


a type of simple machine; consists of a rigid bar that pivots about afulcrum, used to transmit and enhance power or motion

life cycle

the entire sequence of events in an organism’s growth anddevelopment


electromagnetic radiation that lies within the visible range


one of the fundamental states of matter with a definite volume but nodefinite shape


having the property of attracting iron and certain other materials byvirtue of a surrounding field of force


the amount of matter an object contains


a solid, liquid, or gas that possesses inertia and is capable ofoccupying space

metamorphic rock

a type of rock that forms from existing rock because of extremechanges caused by heat, pressure, or chemical environments


relating to an object too small to be visible without the use of amicroscope


the product of a thorough blending of two or more substances, notchemically combined


a natural satellite that revolves around a planet

moon phase

a phrase that indicates the fraction of the Moon’s disc that isilluminated (as seen from Earth); the eight moon phases (in order):new moon, waxing crescent, first quarter, waxing gibbous, fullmoon, waning gibbous, last quarter, waning crescent

nonrenewable resource

a resource that can only be replenished over millions of years


a structure containing different tissues that are organized to carry outa specific function of the body (e.g., heart, lungs, brain, etc.)


any living plant, animal, or fungus that maintains various vitalprocesses necessary for life


a chemical process by which plants trap light energy to convertcarbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates (sugars)

physical change

a reaction; a change in matter from one form to another, withoutforming new substances


a large body in space that orbits a star and does not produce light ofits own


any alteration of the natural environment producing a conditionharmful to living organisms; may occur naturally or as a result ofhuman activities


a group of organisms of the same species living in a specificgeographical area

potential energy

the energy an object has because of its position or structure; storedenergy


an organism that preys on and consumes animals; usually an animal


an organism caught or hunted for food by another organism


an organism that makes its own food from the environment; usually agreen plant


unicellular organisms belonging to the kingdom Protista


a type of simple machine; a circular lever, usually a wheel with agroove where a rope can be placed and used to change the directionof a force


the bouncing off or turning back of light, sound, or heat from asurface


a change in the direction of a wave that occurs as it passes from onemedium to another of different density

renewable resource

a resource that is replaced or restored, as it is used, by naturalprocesses in a reasonable amount of time


any material that can be used to satisfy a need

scientific method

a plan of inquiry that uses science process skills as tools to gather,organize, analyze, and communicate information

sedimentary rock

rock formed from layers of sediment that overlay and squeezetogether or are chemically combined

solar system

a star and all the planets and other bodies that orbit it; the region inspace where these bodies move


having a definite shape and a definite volume; one of thefundamental states of matter


a mixture of two or more substances uniformly dispersed throughouta single phase


a large, gaseous, self-luminous body held together by gravity andpowered by thermonuclear reactions


the closest star to Earth and the center of our solar system


a set of objects, organisms, or different parts acting to form a whole


similar cells acting to perform a specific function; four basic types oftissue are muscle, connective, nerve, and epidermal


the surface, shape, and composition of a land area


the total sum of all matter and energy that exists


a vent or fissure in Earth’s surface through which magma and itsassociated materials are expelled; generally a mountain-like structure


a measure of the amount of space an object takes up; also theloudness of a sound or signal

water cycle

the path water takes as it is being cycled through the environment,including condensation, evaporation, and precipitation


the natural processes that break down and change rock into soil,sand, and other materials; differs from erosion in that notransportation of those materials takes place

wheel and axle

a type of simple machine; a circular frame or disk revolving around acentral axis