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39 Cards in this Set

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Arguably, the end-goal of research in psychology is related to describing the ________ which mediate behaviour and/or cognition.
causal mechanisms
Correlation does not imply …
causation
ANOVA does not imply …

causation

multiple regression does not imply …

causation

No statistical analysis in particular allows us to …

infer causation.

All parametric statistics are based on the _______ and the _______.
principal of least squares; general linear model. (2 marks)
A method by which an unknown value is represented (or predicted) by a combination of other variables is known as the _____.
general linear model.
All ______ can be represented through a general linear model equation.
parametric statistics
What people mean when they say “correlation does not imply causation” is that _______does not allow for inferences of causality.
non-experimental research
“Correlational research” involves the estimation of the association between variables ______by the experimenter.
none of which are manipulated
Non-experimental research is also known as _____ and ______ research.
observational; cross-sectional (2 marks).
Causes and effects should be …
correlated.
Correlation is a ______ but ______ condition for causal inference.
necessary; not sufficient
In order for X to cause Y, it is essential that Y …
occurs after X.
There is always a time lag between a cause and effect. In the causality literature, this is sometimes referred to as the _____ principle.
contiguity
When the cause and effect are distantly contiguous, there needs to be good ____ to explain the intermediary factors occurring between the two points in time.

theory

When two things occur together but are actually caused by one or more other factors the relationship is said to be …

spurious

In one of the lectures, it was found that exam anxiety remained a statistically significant predictor of final exam performance, independently of the effects of time spent revising. What is the main reason causality cannot be inferred in this case?
third variable problem (yes, other answers could be suggested here, but I want to see “third variable problem”).
Causal effects are recognised in ______ terms not ______ terms.
probabilistic; deterministic
When considering the possibility of a causal mechanism implied by the results of an investigation, the degree to which that implication coheres with other established findings is known as:
theoretical plausibility
In order to infer causality from research, we must ultimately rely upon …
experiments.
Experiments have three key attributes:
random assignment; manipulation; controlled measurement (3 marks)
The placement of objects (people or things) into the conditions of an experiment such that each object has exactly the same probability of being exposed to each condition is known as…
random assignment
The benefit of random assignment is that it…
equates at the group level.
Random assignment equates the groups on factors that are known, ______, measured, and _____.
unknown; unmeasured (1 mark)
Random assignment to groups allows us to control for extraneous factors …
of no interest to the experiment.
______ implies that each case in the population has an equal chance of being selected into the sample.
Random sampling
In a placebo-controlled experiment that uses random assignment to two groups, the only characteristic that distinguishes the two groups from each other, within sampling fluctuations, is …
reception of the experimental manipulation or placebo.
_____ involves directly regulating which group(s) receive exposure to the _____ of interest and to what degree.
Manipulation; independent variable (2 marks)
Controlled measurement implies that the hypothesized effect must be measured _____ and _____.
systematically and validly (2 marks)
The ______ is remarkable at satisfying all of the conditions for causal inference.
scientific experiment
Based on the graph of results shown in the lecture, the direction of the correlation between cell phone use in the US (in minutes) and the number of annual brain tumor diagnoses is …

negative.

The observation that changes in subjects’ behavior are sometimes due to being studied, rather than to the experimenter’s manipulation, may be referred to as …
the Hawthorne effect.
In the original research on the effects of lighting changes on employee performance, it was found that ______ affected performance positively.
any changes
The mixture of various hints and cues that govern the _______of his or her role and of the experimenter’s hypothesis is known as ______.
subject’s perception; demand characteristics
In order the reduce the chance of demand characteristics being observed in a study, the experimenters often need to _____ variable.
hide the independent
Experimenters can unwittingly cause participants to behave in a way that is consistent with the hypothesis by treating those in the experimental group differently than the control group. This is known as the …
experimenter expectancy effect.
A famous example of where experimenters’ knowledge of the expected outcomes of the study affected the performance of the subjects in the study is Rosenthal and Fode’s (1963) study on ____ and ____ rats.
“maze-bright”; “maze-dull”
______ consist of procedures where neither the experimenters nor the participants know which condition the participants are in.
Double-blind studies