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### 54 Cards in this Set

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 According to the lectures, what are the three reasons we do statistics? don’t have access to the population of interest; measure the magnitude of an effect; test assumptions (3 marks) The collection of units to which we want to generalize a set of findings is known as a…. population. A smaller collection of units from a population used to determine truths about the population is known as a… sample. In statistics, for what does p stand? probability Once you have obtained a statistically significant effect, and you have satisfied the assumptions associated with a statistic, what should you always do next? calculate effect size What is a standardized measure of the strength of association between two variables measured on an interval/ratio scale? Pearson correlation If larger values associated with one variable are associated with larger values of another variable, the correlation is said to be… positive If larger values associated with one variable are associated with smaller values of another variable, the correlation is said to be… negative According to Cohen (1992), a small correlation is equal to… .10 According to Cohen (1992), a medium correlation is equal to… .30 According to Cohen (1992), a large correlation is equal to… .50 The proportion of variance in one variable accounted for by another variable is known as the… coefficient of determination. To obtain the coefficient of determination, one must ____ a correlation coefficient. square According to Cohen’s (1992) guidelines, a large correlation would imply that ____ of the variance in one variable is accounted for by another variable. 25% An unstandardized version of the Pearson correlation is known as… Pearson covariance A Pearson correlation can take on any value between… -1.0 and 1.0 A Pearson covariance can take on any value between… infinity and infinity The main disadvantage associated with the Pearson covariance is that it is… difficult to interpret A commonly used measure of association between two variables measured with ranks is the… Spearman correlation A commonly used measure of association between two variables when one or both are highly skewed is the… Spearman correlation The chances of rejecting the null hypothesis erroneously is known as… Type I error rate. In typical behavioral sciences research, what is the maximum specified acceptable rate of rejecting the null hypothesis falsely? 5% (or .05) The chances of committing a Type I error across a series of statistical comparisons is known as… Familywise error rate Across three statistical analyses based on the same sample of data, the chances of rejecting the null hypothesis falsely is equal to… .143 A statistic that tests multiple null hypotheses simultaneously is known as an _____ statistic. Omnibus What is the main benefit of conducting an omnibus statistic? Can help protect against committing a type 1 error. Although people use the term ‘Cohen’s d’, what they are really reporting in published papers is? Hedge’s g ANOVA stands for… Analysis of variance It’s called analysis of variance, rather than analysis of means, because… ANOVA is fundamentally based on the ratio of the variability between the means to the variability between individual observations. A statistic that can be used to test the hypothesis that three or more between group means are equal simultaneously is known as? Between groups ANOVA A statistic that can be used to test the hypothesis that three or more dependent means are equal simultaneously is known as… Repeated measures ANOVA What is the Cohen’s d formula? (Mean1 – Mean2) / [(SD1 + SD2)/2] (2 marks) The number of values that are free to vary with respect to a sums of squares term within an ANOVA table is known as… the degrees of freedom In a between groups ANOVA with three groups and equal sample sizes of 10 in each of the groups, the degrees of freedom are equal to… 2, 27, 29 Suppose you conducted a study where the main result was based on a between groups ANOVA with three groups and equal sample sizes of 10 in each of the groups. What two degrees of freedom would you report with the ANOVA results? 2, 27 Within the context of ANOVA, when you divide the sums of squares by the degrees of freedom you get the … Mean squares Within the context of ANOVA, when you divided the between groups and within groups of mean squares values, you get… F-value the statistical significance associated with an ANOVA is based on the obtained F-value and the… degrees of freedom All other things equal, an ANOVA associated with greater within groups degrees of freedom will be associated with… greater statistical power In the context of between-groups ANOVA, the convention method of reporting the strength of effect is … Eta squared (or η2) Within the context of ANOVA, what is the eta squared formula? SSBetween/SSTotal Although eta squared is commonly reported as a measure of effect size, it is known to be an ____ at the population level. overestimate In the context of ANOVA, the most accurate estimate of effect size is known as… Omega squared Calculate the F value associated with the below ANOVA table. The total sample size is 30.What is the F value?ANOVA Summary Table:SSBetween 20, Within 95; df 2, ; MS , ; F 2.84 Statistical tests of the difference between means that is conducted after obtaining a statistically significant ANOVA are known as… Post-hoc tests Statistical tests such as post-hoc tests and planned comparisons are known as… Multiple comparison procedures What statistical analysis can be performed with the SPSS window below? Oneway between groups ANOVA In order to get SPSS to estimate eta squared, the ANOVA must be conducted within… The General Linear Model option If one obtains a statistically significant between groups ANOVA with only three groups, the most powerful post-hoc procedure that keeps the familywise error rate at .05 is… Fishers LSD Strictly speaking, what are the five assumptions associated with the Between Groups ANOVA Random sampling; independence of observations; dependent variable measured on an interval/ratio scale; normally distributed data; homogeneity of variance (5 marks) ANOVA is robust to violations of normally distributed data, so long as skew and kurtosis are less than ____ and ____, respectively. |2| and |9| ANOVA is robust to violations of variance homogeneity, so long as the difference between the smallest and largest samples is not greater than ____ and the difference in the variances is not greater than ____ times. 40%; 8 If the variances between two groups is very substantially different and the sample sizes are substantially unequal, an attractive (i.e., robust) alternative to test the hypothesis of equal means is… Welch’s t-test If the difference between two or more variances is very substantial and the sample sizes are substantially unequal, an attractive (i.e., robust) alternative to test the hypothesis of equal means is… Brown-Forsythe F-test