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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Quantitative
Deductive
Qualitative
Inductive
Pineo Porter Scale
Occupational prestige.
Blischen Score
Takes occupation, education, and earnings into account.
Conceptualization
Process of taking a construct and refining it by giving it a conceptual or theoretical definition.
Operationalization
Links a conceptual definiton to a specific set of measurement techniques or procedures.
Conceptual Hypothesis
Most abstract level - looking for a causal relationship between 2 constructs.
Empirical Hypothesis
Determine the degree of association between indicators - links it to the empirical world.
Reliability
Dependable or constant/can be repeated.
Validity
Truthfulness - how things fit together.
How to Improve Reliability
1. Clearly conceptualize all constucts - avoid distractions.
2. Increase the level of measurement - be precies.
3. Use multiple indicators of a variable.
4. Use pretests, pilot studies, and replication (draft).
Measurement Validity
How well the conceptual to operational definitions mesh with each other.
Face Validity
In the judgment of others.
Content Validity
Captures the entire meaning.
Criterion
Agrees with an external source.
Concurrent
Agrees with a pre-existing measure (see Criterion)
Predictive
Agrees with a future behaviour (see Criterion)
Authenticity
Giving a fair, honest, and balanced account of someone who lives it everyday.
External Validity
Can things that happen in a lab be applied to the real world?
Statistical Validity
The correct statistical procedure is chosen and its assumptions are fully met.
Continuous Variables
Infinite number of values or attributes that flow along a continuum. Eg. Interval or ratio
Discrete Variables
Relatively fixed set of separate values or variable attributes. Eg. Nominal or ordinal
Nominal Measures
Indicate only that their is a difference between categories.
Ordinal Measures
Indicate a difference, plus the categories can be ordered or ranked. Eg. more religion, more conservative.
Interval Measures
Indicate everything the first 2 do and can specify the amount of distance between categories. Eg. IQ tests.
Ratio Measures
Do everything the other levels do, plus there is a true zero. Eg. # of children, grades, etc.
Mutually Exclusive Variables
An individual or case fits into one and only one attribute of a variable. Eg. define employed and unemployed in such a way that nobody can be both.
Exhaustive Variables
All cases fit into one of the attributes of a variable. Eg. "Other" is used as a category.
Uni-dimensionality
All the items in a scale or index fit together, or measure a single construct.
Index
Is a combination of items into a single numerical score.
Rates
Standardizes the value of an item to make comparisons possible.
Standardization
Selecting a base and dividing the raw measure by the base.
Likert Scales
Asks people whether they agree or disagree with a statement.
Response Bias
Tendency of some people to answer a large number of items in the same way out of laziness or a psychological predisposition.
Semantic Differential
Provides a indirect measure of how a person feels about a concept, object or another person - uses polar opposite adjectives.
Guttman Scaling
Begins by measuring a set of indicators or items - uses YES/NO questions.
Hierarchical
The higher order items build on the lower ones (see Guttman Scale)
Scalogram Analysis
Lets a researcher test whether hierarchical relationships exist among the items.