Stress Contexts for Individual and Family Development Essay

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Miscarriage is defined as the spontaneous loss of a pregnancy before viability (Sur & Fenning, 2009). Miscarriage is an internal, social stressor because it is an unplanned event that can have serious repercussions on the individual. Social stressors are unplanned or unexpected traumatic events for which there is usually little time for preparation (Bristor 2010). Internal stressors are those that originate within the family (Bristor, 2010). However, as a direct result of a miscarriage, one can experience psychological stressors. Psychological stressors are strong emotions such as fear, anxiety, panic, frustration, anger, resentment, hate, disgust, unhappiness, sadness, grief, self-pity, inferiority feelings, and guilt (Bristor 2010). Most women would consider a miscarriage to be a very distressing event that can give rise to a variety of emotions including guilt, depression, confusion, anger, and post-traumatic stress disorder (Swanson, Karmali, Powell, & Pulvermakher, 2003). Because miscarriage occurs in a small percentage of females, it would be considered a non-normative and non-volitional stressor. A non-normative stressor is one that involves the idiosyncratic challenges and events that are not typically present in families (Cobb, 2014a). Miscarriage is also non-normative because the challenges that come along with miscarriage like the psychological and physical trauma are very unique to those affected. It is a
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