Stress Contexts for Individual and Family Development Essay

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The ABC-X Model illustrates how an individual or system handles stress and their mechanisms for coping with that stress. The ABC-X model is comprised of three related variables which include the stressor or event that causes stress (A), the resources that exist within the individual or system (B), and finally how an individual or system perceives the stressor (C) (Bristor 2010). “Stress is defined as any stimulus causing physical and psychological distress when our day-to-day problems exceed

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Miscarriage is defined as the spontaneous loss of a pregnancy before viability (Sur & Fenning, 2009). Miscarriage is an internal, social stressor because it is an unplanned event that can have serious repercussions on the individual. Social stressors are unplanned or unexpected traumatic events for which there is usually little time for preparation (Bristor 2010). Internal stressors are those that originate within the family (Bristor, 2010). However, as a direct result of a miscarriage, one can experience psychological stressors. Psychological stressors are strong emotions such as fear, anxiety, panic, frustration, anger, resentment, hate, disgust, unhappiness, sadness, grief, self-pity, inferiority feelings, and guilt (Bristor 2010). Most women would consider a miscarriage to be a very distressing event that can give rise to a variety of emotions including guilt, depression, confusion, anger, and post-traumatic stress disorder (Swanson, Karmali, Powell, & Pulvermakher, 2003). Because miscarriage occurs in a small percentage of females, it would be considered a non-normative and non-volitional stressor. A non-normative stressor is one that involves the idiosyncratic challenges and events that are not typically present in families (Cobb, 2014a). Miscarriage is also non-normative because the challenges that come along with miscarriage like the psychological and physical trauma are very unique to those affected. It is a
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