Soil Transmitted Helminths and Disease Essay

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Soil-transmitted helminthes, also known as intestinal worm infections. It is one of the most common parasite infections in the world. These infections are most prevalent in tropical and sub tropical regions of the developed world where adequate water and sanitations are lacking. Recent estimate suggesting that A. lumbricoids infects 1,221 million people, T.trichuira 795 million, and hookworms 740 million (Desilva et., 2003). Chronic and intense soil transmitted helminthes can contribute to malnutrition and iron-deficiency anemia and also can adversely affect physical and mental growth in childhood (Drake et al.,2000.,Stephenson et al.,2000., Hotez et al.,2004).
This parasitic infection is caused mainly by four main species of worms. These
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Hookworm infections which are a soil- transmitted helminthes is caused by the N.americanus and A. duodenale. Acute infections cause diarrhea and abdominal pain. Chronic infections can cause serious health problems for infants, children, pregnant women and malnourished children. The disease causes chronic adverse effects in both mothers an infant. Whipworm (T.trichuira) which is a soil- transmitted helminthes is the third most common soil- transmitted helminthes causing nematode in humans. Current estimate has shown that nearly 800 million people are infected. Chronic infections can lead to acute symptoms such as diarrhea and anemia, chronic symptoms such as impaired cognitive developments and growth retardation. Co- infection with protozoan parasites like Giardia and Entamoeba histolytica and other nematodes are common. The soil- transmitted helminthes disease affects the poor and infections are abundant among people living in rural or deprived urban settings with a low economic status, lack of healthy water and poor sanitation (Hotez et al. 2006b). The death cause by these worms is commonly associated with chronic infection of intestines. As a result children experience growth stunting and diminished physical fitness as well as impaired memory and cognition (Crompton and Nesheim, 2002, Stephenson et al. 2000 and Bethony et al.2006).Studies have demonstrated that children may acquire helminthes infection early in life (Sousa- Fifueiredo et

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