Essay on Pathogen that Causes Histoplasmosis: Dr. Samuel Darling

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Introduction
H. capsulatum is a most common true pathogen that causes histoplasmosis, and was discovered by Dr. Samuel Darling in 1905 (Talaro & Chess, 2012). Histoplasma capsulatum is a dimorphic fungus that can grow in human bodies as yeast. It is known to grow best at human body temperatures, and it remains in a mycelial form at ambient temperatures (Fayyaz, 2013). Most individuals who inhale this microscopic fungal spore don’t get infected, however some individuals who inhale this spore result in developing lung infections. H. capsulatum is a fungus that can be found in the soil, and is associated with bird and bat droppings (CDC, 2013). It is interesting that it took so long after the discovery for its epidemiology to now suggest
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Even though, both males and females are in the reported cases, adult males are the majority of those reported cases (Talaro & Chess, 2012). CDC states that there is no existing national surveillance of the occurrences of histoplasmosis, and they recommends for physicians to contact their local health department if they are interested in the cases of histoplasmosis that were reported (CDC, 2013). Midwestern and South Central United States are the areas that are endemic for histoplasmosis. There are about 250 thousand people infected by this disease annually, however clinical manifestation takes place only in 5% of the reported cases (Fayyaz, 2013).
Transmission
H. capsulatum is a fungal infection that is spread through airborne means. The major defenses of the host include fungi static properties of macrophages and neutrophils. The infected individual is more susceptible to increased spreading of the infection if his cellular defenses are immunocompromised. For instance if his T lymphocyte cells are not functioning properly, the spread of the infection cannot be limited by the hosts immune response defenses (Fayyaz, 2013). Also the more serious cases of this infection are found in patients who have AIDS or other diseases which impair their immune system. When a small amount of spores are inhaled into the deep recesses of the lungs, usually there are no symptoms of the disease that are present. The primary

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