In 1642 England was starting to seek for changes in the way their government was set up. John Locke and Samuel Rutherford were the leaders of this change, calling for the removal of an absolute monarch. Their works would be opposed by the ideas of Thomas Hobbes, during this eighteen-year civil war in England. The ideas represented in this period would heavily influence the way England’s government would be set up in the eighteenth century.
In 1644 Bishop Ross, also known as John Maxwell, published Sacro-Sancta Regum Majestas.The article’s ideas centered on Calvinist resistance theory and the political theory of Spanish neo-scholastics. In response Samuel Rutherford came out with his publication, Lex Rex, which translates to “Law is King”.
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From this, a civil society was established based on absolute equality and set up a government to settle disputes that would arise in their type of society. The government’s power, however, was not made to be absolute. The power of the government was meant to be surrendered to the people themselves and its authority was contractual with applied conditions. If these conditions were overstepped or abused society has the right to rid of it and create another. With Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Locke offered the first great defense to empiricism. The publication has to do with determining the limits of human understanding in respect to a wide variety of topics. The main focuses, however, is sensation and reflection. With sensation our senses focus toward the world and subconsciously receive information. Within reflection the focus is on our mind itself and how it passively receives ideas. This all originates back to our sense of perception. He felt as if our minds were a black tablet, tabula rasa, and that only when we, as infants, start to experience things do our senses to perceive the external world register in our minds. This focus reflected upon the goodness and perfectibility of humanity. His theory had radical implications that, if all humans were capable of reason, education may be able to spread to level of hierarchies of status, race or sex. Much of Locke’s other works had to do with opposition to authority, while his main