Strong evidence suggests an association between Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and insulin resistance . De la Monte is one of the leaders who proposed the concept of Type 3 Diabetes Mellitus (T3DM) or brain insulin resistance based on experimental studies which demonstrated that brain insulin resistance in Alzheimer patients can be identified as type 3 diabetes (T3DM) [95, 96]. T3DM (brain insulin resistance) has molecular and biochemical features that overlap with both type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) causing many metabolic disorders. In contrast, Craft who is the leading authority on the role of insulin metabolism of Alzheimer’s disease and aging reported that pathology, molecular biology, and clinical studies suggested that insulin resistance in the peripheral and in the brain is a risk factor of AD . Due to the link between Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and Alzheimer’s disease, which is characterized by De la Monte as T3DM (brain insulin resistance) .
Type 3 Diabetes (T3DM) as proposed by De la Monte:
Type 3 diabetes (T3DM) is a type of neuroendocrine disease that is related to Alzheimer’s disease (AD [95, 96]. T3DM is characterized by insulin resistance in the brain with low levels of insulin and insulin–like growth factor type I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II) and the number of their receptors [99, 100]. There is now sufficient evidence that genetic polymorphisms  and endothelial dysfunction leads to a number of functional changes in the vascular