T2D And Diabetes: A Literature Review

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It is estimated that 10% of the entire population already has type 2 diabetes (T2D) or has a chance of developing it and 40% of adults are obese. Those who have a predisposition to T2D and diabetes are deeply rooted in genetics. There is about a 70% chance of heritability for obesity and about a 35% chance for T2D; however, these conditions are also caused by lifestyle habits. Many studies have identified potential environmental factors that may cause obesity and T2D; the most prominent being a combination of high caloric intake and inactivity. Other potential factors include smoking, sleep deprivation, and endocrine disruptors. The way that environmental factors and an individual’s predisposition can disturb cellular or physiological processes …show more content…
This insensitivity is normally caused by excess fat deposits on ‘abnormal’ sites such as the liver and muscle. The genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many loci, or the position of a gene on a chromosome, containing common variants that are highly associated with T2D and obesity; however, collectively these variant signals only explain a minority of the overall genetic risk. The main point of this article is to focus on the implications of improved understanding of genetically driven disease risks to provide better and more efficient interventions. The major risk factor for T2D is obesity, and most individuals with T2D are overweight. Individuals that develop T2D even when they have a normal body weight tend to have more severe defects with insulin. In some of these individuals, genetic patterns from T1D and T2D have been observed. Human diets are complicated and have many components that have been implicated, at some point, as a risk for T2D and there is no outstanding evidence that the reduction of long-term body weight is the most effective route to use. Variations at the FTO locus affects energy balance and BMI-raising FTO alleles correlates with high dietary protein intake in adults, not children. The increased expression of IRX3 and IRX5 has been linked to BMI associated alleles. Most of the known loci, that influence the risk of T2D, does so by affecting insulin secretion which directs …show more content…
The main explanation comes from the ‘fetal programming’ hypothesis, which attributes to the relationship between maternal nutrition and placental function on the risk of metabolic disease later in life. Studies on rodents have detected methylation signatures that might give messages about early life across an individual’s life course. However, most of the T2D and obesity associated methylation signals have been found not causal. TXNIP, which encodes a thioredoxin-reducing protein implicated in metabolic processes such as nutrient sensing, islet function, and energy expenditure, may be an exception to this. Methylation in this area has been associated with T2D but not with the restriction of early growth. In the mothers where maternal obesity and gestational diabetes is common, the connection between the rate of early growth and T2D is best described as U-shaped; meaning both high and low birth weights are connected to T2D. The higher risk of T2D I those with high birth weight most likely reflects the impact of maternal hyperglycemia, a high rate of glucose in the blood. Children that have the T2D-risk alleles, such as MTNR1B and GCK have high birth weights, and those with ADCY5 and CDKAL1 alleles have a low birth

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