Pathophysiology Of Diabetes

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Diabetes, also known as Diabetes mellitus to the medical field, is a combination of diseases that affect metabolism so that the individual has raised blood sugar levels. This can be due to a lack of insulin, and/or a body’s change in how it responds to insulin. Approximately 382 million people in the world are directly affected by diabetes. The three types of the disease include Type 1 or Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 or Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus, and Gestational Diabetes. Gestational Diabetes happens only during pregnancy but is also significant because it opens a window of greater possibility of Diabetes Mellitus to develop post pregnancy, later in life. Any of the diabetes diseases, if not controlled and taken …show more content…
This happens when the person cannot create or supply enough insulin (which is needed for the cells to absorb the glucose for proper function or muscle and other tissues). Without this energy, the body begins to utilize fat storage as an alternate way to use energy. When fat is broken down, ketones are released as they are a byproduct of the destruction of fat. These ketones are toxic acids that can lead to a Diabetic Ketoacidodic state, if not controlled and reversed. The signs and symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include frequent urination, excessive thirst, nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, fatigue and weakness, confusion, shortness of breath, and most notably fruity scented breath. The more definable signs are high blood sugar levels and high ketone levels in the urine. The ketones in the urine occur when the levels in the blood reach such a critical level that they essentially seep into the …show more content…
Urinary tract infections and pneumonia seem to be common causes. Problems with insulin therapy are also common causes. Skipped treatments or inefficient therapy that cause low insulin in the body can trigger this state. More triggers that are fairly common include trauma (physical and emotional), high fever, heart attack, surgery, stress, and drug abuse (especially alcohol and cocaine). The highest factors that can lead to DKA are; having DM type1, often missing insulin doses, and being under the age of

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