The Protestant Reformation Movement

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The Origin of The Reformation
The Protestant Reformation was a religious movement that began in Germany in the 1500s. This religious movement spread throughout Western and central Europe and brought changes in the political, social, economic, and intellectual life. The Protestant Reformation “grew out of religious conditions of the late Middle Ages but historians disagree about the state of the Catholic Church during this period”(). There are people who believe that the church was in a period of spiritual decline and others affirm that most Christians were satisfied with it. Leading up to the Protestant Reformation, “popes shifted their focus on politics and neglected important religious matters”(). Some of the most important political figures
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In the late 1520s, England had dissolved its ties with the Catholic church when the pope denied Henry the VIII 's request of an annulment from his first wife, Catherine of Aragon, as a result from failure to produce a male heir. The doctrine of new English church remained efficiently Catholic. Under the rule of Edward VI between 1547 and 1553, “England progressed towards becoming a Protestant nation” (). “The Archibishop Crammer oversaw the publication of an English version of the prayer book that maintained the outer forms of Catholic worship but was based on Protestant theology” (). In 1533, Queen Mary attempted to restore Catholicism when she took the throne, however, since she ruled the throne for a short period of time and failed to produce an heir, the change did not last. In 1558, Elizabeth I came to power and took on a political position which favored Protestantism. A year later, “she approved the Act of Supremacy, which took away the authority of the pope and recognized the Queen as the face of the English church” (). The majority of people accepted Queen Elizabeth 's policies and began to use the English prayer book. Although some protestants, acquainted with puritans objected to Elizabeth 's control of the church. Puritan members and their ideologies formed a minority but they pushed for additional reforms in the …show more content…
The first period of the war, the Bohemian period, “broke out in Bohemia after the ascent to the Bohemian throne in 1618 of the Habsburg Ferdinand.” This was a direct result from Ferdinand revoking the religious freedom of Bohemian protesters. There was a “swift victory over the weaker elector palatine since Spain sent troops to aid Ferdinand.” Ferdinand was able to “re-Catholicize Bohemia and also conquer Palatinate.” During the second period of war, the Danish period, “Christian IV entered Germany with his army but was forced to retreat back to Denmark by Maximilian.” At the time of the conquest of Bohemia, “Albrecht of Wallenstein joined Ferdinand” and both went into Denver.” Ferdinand issued the Edict of Restitution, “a proclamation that reasserted Catholic safeguards at the peace of Augsburg”. In the Swedish period, “Gustavus Adolphus opened the Swedish period of war.” He had “won a victory at Breitenfeld and had managed to reverse the course of the war.” During the battle of Lutzen, “Adolphus died at the hands of Wallenstein 's forces.” Lastly, in the fourth period of war, the Swedish-French period, “after France entered the war, it continued for 13 years.” By the time there was talk of the possibility of a peace settlement, “one third of the German population had

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