X-Ray Research Paper

Improved Essays
X-Ray and Neutron Imaging
In physics, radiation is described as the transmission or emission of energy in the form of particles such as electrons, neutrons, protons and alpha particles or waves through a medium such as space, air or through a material. Gamma radiation (γ) and electromagnetic radiation, such as x-rays, radio waves heat and visible light are all examples of radiation. One of the main modern physics discoveries was that each unit of a wavelength of any form of wave radiation will carry more energy the shorter it is. Thus, gamma rays and X-rays are especially more energetic than light. These rays penetrate farther into all sorts of matter (UCLA). This essay seeks to discuss and analyse two forms of radiation; neutron imaging which
…show more content…
As previously mentioned, the shorter the wavelengths of radiation, the greater its energy thus x-rays will have a greater energy and strong penetrating power based on its wavelength. Longer wavelengths near the UV ray bar on the electromagnetic spectrum (see fig.1) are called soft (lower energy) x-rays and the shorter wavelength, overlapping the gamma ray range (see fig.1) are known as hard (high energy x-rays). The discovery of the x-ray was done over a century ago (1895) by the German physicist Wilhelm Röntgen who did experiments with a vacuum tube with a wire component at one end forming the cathode (-), and a heavy copper target at the other end forming the anode (+). When Röntgen applied a high voltage to the electrodes, the electrons formed at the cathode were attracted to anode and striked with a high amount of energy. Roentgen found that very penetrating radiations were produced from the anode, which he called x-rays. In an X-ray machine, a stream of highly charged electrons is made to strike a metal target. This arouses some of the electrons in the atoms of the target material. In the process of giving off the excess energy thus gained, the atomic electrons send out Xrays(see fig.2). The principal uses of x-rays are in the field of scientific research, industry, and medicine. Advanced and efficient techniques of x- rays are being developed everyday, like MAX IV. Recently, …show more content…
For example, neutron imaging is used frequently to highlight light materials such as hydrogenous substances with high contrast in engine parts or in fuel cells. Neutron imaging also enables the visualisation of the movement of fluids, such as oil or water, in large metal objects. X rays, like neutron imaging has many applications, they are used in industry and business. For example, x-ray photos of engine parts or whole engine can be taken to look for defects in a non-destructive method. X-rays are also used in medicine to detect cancer, broken bones and teeth. The resulting images from neutron imaging have much in common with industrial X-ray images, but since the image is based on neutron attenuating properties instead of X-ray attenuation properties, some materials simply visible with neutron imaging may be very difficult or impossible to see with X-ray imaging procedures and vice

Related Documents

  • Improved Essays

    The Atomic Model

    • 723 Words
    • 3 Pages

    Fusion is when two atomic nuclei combine to form a heavier nucleus which results in the release of many photons. The photons released are the light that we see. The light produced in this reaction can have any wavelength. In the case of stars, a reaction of deuterium (basic nuclei) and hydrogen (basic atom) produce a helium atom with a photon which is seen as the main source of the illumination of the star. In the end, we are able to see that stars are made up of atoms through the use of spectral lines and our knowledge of fusion.…

    • 723 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Essay On Nuclear Chemistry

    • 1105 Words
    • 5 Pages

    We call the unstable nuclides radionuclides. In the mid- 20th century medical radionuclide production highly used reactors, accelerators and cyclotrons. Among the 1500 nuclides that are available, reactor-produced radionuclides are usually electron rich. This property result for the nuclides to decay by β negative emission that was used for cancer therapy. Some reactor-produced radionuclides were used for nuclear medicine imaging.…

    • 1105 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Great Essays

    Industry utilizes radioisotopes in a diversity of methods to enhance productivity and attain information that cannot be obtained from other ways. Radioisotopes are usually used in industrial radiography, which uses a gamma source to conduct stress testing or check the integrity of welds – a common example is to test aero plane jet engine turbines for structural integrity. Radioisotopes are also used by industry for gauging (to measure levels of liquid inside containers, for example) or to measure the thickness of materials. Radioisotopes are also widely used in scientific research, and are employed in a range of applications, from tracing the flow of contaminants in biological systems, to determining metabolic…

    • 1456 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Great Essays
  • Improved Essays

    His new model better described the structural components of the atom than Dalton’s featureless atom. Thompson used a Cathode Ray Tube, which was a sealed glass container, and shot a stream of electrons across the glass tube. When the particles stuck to the other end of the tube, it created a patch of light that indicated where the particles landed. Thompson discovered that by using a magnetic field, he could move and deflect particles. He found that particles would always move towards the positively charged side.…

    • 1041 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Superior Essays

    It can be explained as follows; the ultrafast electron pulses with a duration of couple hundreds of femtosecond are generated by the photoemission process by illuminating the photocathode inside the microscope by UV laser pulses. These electron pulses are accelerated inside the microscope and incident on the sample under study together with visible laser pulses. The photon-electron coupling between the optical pulses and the electron pulses takes place when the energy-momentum conservation condition is satisfied (27, 28). This inelastic interaction leads to gain/loss of photon quanta via electron packets, which can be resolved in the electron energy spectrum consisting of discrete peaks, spectrally separated by multiples of photon energy (nћω), on both sides of the zero loss peak (ZLP). The electron that gain or loss energy due to the coupling only exists in the presence of the optical laser pulse.…

    • 1738 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Great Essays

    X-ray diffractometer consists of three basic components (i) X-ray tube (ii) sample holder and (ii) detector. In the X-ray tube highly accelerated electrons are directed towards the target material. Copper is the most common target material used. When these electrons are interacted with the target and characteristic X-rays are produced. This X-ray spectrum consists of several components.…

    • 1032 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Great Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Big Bang Theory

    • 798 Words
    • 4 Pages

    The noise didn’t just come from one location to another, it came from all directions possible at once. It was learned that the noise was a radiation from the farthest points of the universe that had been left over from the explosion. The Cosmic Microwave Background accord about 380,000 years after the Big Bang. Before then, the matter in the universe consisted of electrons and protons. The universe was covered by haze and light waves were being blocked by the haze.…

    • 798 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Great Essays

    Spectroscopy Essay

    • 1635 Words
    • 7 Pages

    Ionization is effected by a high energy beam of electrons (Reusch, 2013). When high energy electrons collides with a molecule, one of the molecular electrons will be knocked away, leaving behind a molecular cation (Anon., n.d.). Residual energy from the collision may cause the molecular cation to fragment into neutral pieces and smaller fragment cations (Reusch, 2013). These ions are then sorted and separated by the mass analyzer based on the mass-to-charge ratio (Reusch, 2013). It is achieved by accelerating and focusing the ions in a beam (Reusch, 2013).…

    • 1635 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Great Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Particulate Matter Essay

    • 894 Words
    • 4 Pages

    These machines were then able to produce millions of protons, electrons, pions and kaons per second. With the aid of more developed detectors, to go with the machines, physicists now have the tools to study a large variety of particles in more…

    • 894 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    X Rays Research Paper

    • 998 Words
    • 4 Pages

    On the inside of the x-ray tube there is a filament or a cathode emitter, which are used to generate accelerated electrons. When the electrons are generated they move to the metal anode which has a current flowing through which is powered by the high voltage power source. After an electron beam is created the beam hits a focal point and it turns into x-ray photons. After this the photons flow in different directions and the the console operator then determines the voltage and current to create the right x-ray beam. The beam is then aimed at the target that has to checked.…

    • 998 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays