The Pros And Cons Of Biological Warfare

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Man has used biological weapons such as poisons for assassinating enemies for hundreds of years. Since the beginning of time, biological warfare has been a preferred method to annihilate populations at a time. Biological warfare, also known as germ warfare, is described as using biological agents like bacteria, viruses and fungi as biological weapons on a large scale to defeat the enemy. The main intention of such is to cause casualties by the medium of air, water, cattle or crops.
The history of biological warfare and terrorism goes back to the dawn of civilization. (1) The instances of the use of biological weapons can be found as early as in ancient times such as the Trojan War, or the Sacred War of Greece. Although this type of warfare
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Experimentation involving pathogens specifically designed to annihilate populations of people, however, is absolutely unethical. In May,1949, human testing in the U.S. began. The Special Operations Division set up its first tests at the Pentagon. Operatives sprayed harmless bacteria into the building’s air conditioning system and observed as billions of microbes spread all through the Pentagon. Secret testing proceeded through the next year as Navy warships sprayed cities of Norfolk, Hampton, and Newport News with an allegedly harmless anthrax stimulant. Ships released a three-mile long cloud of Serratia marcescens bacteria while sailing off San Francisco. Researchers assessed that nearly all of San Francisco’s 800,000 residents inhaled them. (11) The intentional release of biological agents that could potentially kill a large amount of people is an example of how ethics play a significant role in biological warfare. Members of the military are inoculated against diseases that they would be vulnerable to overseas. Military sponsored research obtained licensure of 10 vaccines between 1945 and 1995, to include vaccines for anthrax, plague, influenza, rubella, adenoviruses, meningococci, hepatitis B, typhoid, Japanese encephalitis, and Hepatitis A, all of which have been widely used and have provided enormous health benefits in both civilian and military settings. (6) According to a study done …show more content…
Historically, the easiest way to attack the enemy was by contaminating the water and crops used by a community. The main types of biological agents that are used in biological weaponry include anthrax, botulism, brucellosis, plague, smallpox and tularemia. Viruses, like anthrax, are released into the air so that those inhaling contract the disease. Anthrax is a disease of both humans and animals, and is caused by Bacillus anthracis. (3) The main route of exposure of anthrax, however, is through the cutaneous route, but exposure may also result from respiratory or gastrointestinal routes. After cutaneous exposure, itching occurs at the side with varying degrees of edema. Necrosis and ulcers may result in severe cases. After inhalation exposure, a victim may experience malaise, fever, fatigue and myalgia. In severe cases, pulmonary edema may result. Meningitis occurs in as much as 50 percent of cases, beginning with the onset of respiratory distress. After gastrointestinal exposure, nausea, vomiting, fever and severe abdominal pain result. Penicillin is used for the treatment of anthrax. (12) Clostridium botulinum is a spore-form anaerobic bacteria found in soil. It is also associated with home-canned food items and is a rare, although naturally occurring, disease. It produces seven different toxins that, depending on the toxin, produce different syndromes.

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