Ethical Issues In Animal Research Essay

Animals are used by humans for a wide array of purposes. The 260 or so million people that live in the United States keep about 110 million dogs and cats as pets. Each year, more than 5 billion animals are killed in the United States as a source of food. Animals are used for transportation, sport, recreation, as well as companionship. Animals are also an instrumental part of learning about living things and the illnesses that affect both humans and animals. By studying animals, information is gained that could not be obtained any other way. Society considers it unethical to try a new drug or surgical method on a human. Instead, new techniques and drugs are first tested on animals to ensure they are safe for human use (Olson 4). If humans want to continue to find treatments, vaccines and cures …show more content…
In 1959, The Principals of Humane Experimental Technique was published. It started one of the most influential attempts in examining and affecting the use of animals in research. Published by William Russell and Rex Burch, it was a response to the growing number of animals in medical and veterinary research. Their work emphasizes the 3Rs. The 3Rs are replacement, refinement and reduction. The 3Rs have served as the cornerstone for current animal research guidelines. They lay out the necessity of reducing the number of animals used, refine or limit the pain of animals and replacing the use of animals with alternatives when possible. The 3Rs require that researchers must obtain a license from the Home-Office before conducting the experiment. The license includes an assessment of the invasiveness of the study and the species being used, following all the principals of the 3Rs. Licensing requires justification for any procedures that involve distress and limits the number of animals used (Ferdowsian and Beck

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