Changes In Germany During The 11th Century

During the 11th century in Germany, three monks each wrote a chronicle on the events of the papacy, their monastery, and the Holy Roman Emperors during their lives. The three authors, Herman ‘the Lame’ of Reichenau, Berthold of Reichenau, and Bernold of St. Blasien, would write their chronicles by year, or annals, mostly recording the deaths of different bishops and changes in personnel in their monastery. However, their detailed accounts, starting around 1049, would describe important events in the papal reform movements occurring in Germany and Rome during the 11th century. A majority of the early annals during the papal reforms were neutral with the author trying their best to remove their own personal bias. This shifted during the 1060’s …show more content…
This movement was fueled by two theologians and cardinals, Peter Damian and Humbert under the papacy of Pope Leo IX. The two cardinals bitterly argued with each other over the nature and effects of simony, which is the buying and selling of ecclesiastical privileges. Simony was being practiced throughout Europe by kings, for clergymen who pay a king and in return the king would grant them a position as bishop or abbot in their land. This reforming agenda was a threat to kings, especially the Holy Roman Emperor King Henry III who had picked the three previous popes, however this papal reform agenda wasn’t a problem for Henry III. Henry III actually supported Pope Leo IX in his papal reform efforts, using their friendship to make sure that the reforms never affected him. These relations changed when Henry III died, leaving his young child, Henry IV, his heir and Pope Leo IX being replaced with a radical reforming monk named Hildebrand, later known as Pope Gregory VII. It was during this timeframe, when the powers shifted in Germany and Rome that the monks that wrote the chronicles would show their support for the papal reforms and become strong supporters of Gregory …show more content…
Originally intended for scholastic studying in the Abbey of Reichenau, it gave the overall tone of Herman’s chronicle as neutral. Herman tried to remove himself and his opinions from what he wrote in each of the annals. Herman’s relationship was extremely close and strong with their abbot, Bern, which meant Herman was aware of the different bishops and abbots that were replace. As a result, most of Herman’s early recordings read like this, “1046. A great sickness destroyed many people on all sides. The very wealthy Margrave Ekkehard died suddenly”. It can also be affirmed that Herman had a favorable opinion of the German kings from his annals around early 1000’s. Although not alive during 1008, Herman does praise King Henry II for removing the abbot of Reichenau and replacing him. Herman writes, “King Henry, after two years learning at last of the cruelty of Immo, removed him and appointed Bern, a learned and pious man” . Immo was appointed through the practice of simony, Herman praises this change from the former German king. This shows that Herman didn’t always support the papacy, like he will later in the chronicle. Later on in Herman’s life he starts to shift his opinion and become critical of Henry III. One of Herman’s most important passages was from his 1053 recordings. Herman writes the event in which Henry III

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