Pope Gregory VII

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    Pope Gregory VII Often considered one of the most influential and controversial popes of the Middle Ages, Gregory VII became pope after a long career in the papal court. Historians have claimed that the papacy of Gregory VII is so important and must be emphasized, they have coined the term “Gregorian Reform”. Gregory VII played an important role in Europe during his time, and was a major contributor both before and after his election to the reform. When discussing the biography of Pope Gregory VII, there are many key topics one must address. Through the reading one will inspect the early life of Gregory VII and his life before becoming pope, how Gregory VII became pope, his accomplishments as pope, as well as how Pope Gregory VII died. Pope…

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    Throughout recorded human history there have been two pillars holding back chaos and promoting order in the world; devotion to a God, and loyalty to a crown. Yet in the middle ages a centuries long struggle for power would divide these factions and pit them against each other in a battle for control of Europe’s people. The struggle, though brewing for generations, was pushed to the forefront of European politics by the actions of Pope Gregory VII, who attempted to dispose of Holy Roman Emperor…

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    This movement was fueled by two theologians and cardinals, Peter Damian and Humbert under the papacy of Pope Leo IX. The two cardinals bitterly argued with each other over the nature and effects of simony, which is the buying and selling of ecclesiastical privileges. Simony was being practiced throughout Europe by kings, for clergymen who pay a king and in return the king would grant them a position as bishop or abbot in their land. This reforming agenda was a threat to kings, especially the…

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    to reflect on the issues that troubled him. While alone, it is believed that Allah shared messages with Muhammad through Angel Gabriel. Muhammad was instructed to share with others as inspirations and spiritual guidance. Eventually the messages were recorded and titled the Qur’an, “The Holy Book of Islam.” By the eleventh century, the leaders of churches changed the way in which church officials were appointed which came to be known as “lay investiture”. Pope Gregory VII did not agree with…

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    Church Union Formation

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    aid to the Church, Pope John XII crowned Otto I as an emperor of the Holy Roman Empire (406 Bentley, Ziegler). This alliance helped to gain control over the German territories, it benefited Otto, since he «strengthened his power and decreased the power of the duchies» (Dill, Heer, Zophy). Instead of relying on dukes, Otto I was appointing bishops and abbots, as his royal vassals to help to rule…

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    equality of men and women, and on the opposite side of the same coin, when a scholar tries to judge Chaucer base on feminist ideas, even if this ideas are correct, they are practically trying to take Chaucer out of his time period and judge him base on our standards. The proper way to study Chaucer is to understand what period he comes from. Chaucer was born around the early 1340’s which was just after the beginning of the Hundred Years War. Chaucer would go on and serve with the army in…

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    The Holy Catholic Church

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    From humble beginnings to an oppressive doctrine, the Holy Catholic Church truly underwent change throughout the course of Medieval history. Seen in these two letters, Clericis Laicos and Unam Sanctam, are what would seem to be the culmination of all this history: the responses of Pope Boniface VIII to the continued pressures of secular rule and its jurisdiction in relation to the Church and its functioning. With the Church’s rapid increase in size and influence over the past several centuries,…

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    Pauline-Augustine doctrine of grace, would greatly shape young Wycliffe's views, as did the Black Death which reached England in the summer of 1348. From his frequent references to it in later life, it appears to have made a deep and abiding impression upon him. According to Robert Vaughn, the effect was to give Wycliffe "Very gloomy views in regard to the condition and prospects of the human race." Wycliffe would have been at Oxford during the St Scholastica Day riot in which sixty-three…

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    If Michelangelo Buonarroti were to paint a picture of a Renaissance gentleman and painter, it would most likely look like himself. He grew up in a moderately wealthy family with him being an apprentice to a painter for the royal Medici family. His life was full of great artistic accomplishments, such as creating the sculpture David, the interior painting of the Sistine Chapel, and probably his most famous painting, The Last Judgement. The legacy that Michelangelo Buonarroti left behind for…

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    The Investiture Conflict or Investiture Controversy began with Henry IV Emperor of Europe and Pope Gregory VII over power. Pope Gregory VII took Henry IV power to appoint religious officials. Henry IV did not agree with this, which caused a further separation from church and state. Henry IV decided to take his allegiance from Pope Gregory VII. They dethroned each other, one from being King and the other from being pope. Neither one felt that the other deserved total power. Henry IV wanted to…

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