The Nuremberg Code: Ethics Principles For Human Experiment

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The Nuremberg code is the most important documents about research ethics principles for human experiment which is formulated in August 1947 after the Nuremberg Trials which held at the end of the Second World War. It was established to have a standard to judge the Nazi scientist and physicians who had conducted the inhuman human experiments in the concentration camps during the war. Informed consent was established as a result of these principles. According to this code, voluntary consent free of undue influence must be given to those who are participating in an experiment. Now, it acts as the guideline for ethics principles in order to protect the rights of subject in medical research.
Declaration of Helsinki is developed by the World Medical Association (WMA) which is a statement of ethical principles acts as a guidance for physicians and other participants in medical research. It involves human subjects and include research on identifiable human material
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There were no consumer regulations, Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Common Rule and Institutional Review Boards (IRBs). The Nuremberg Code was introduced in August 1947 after Nuremberg trials. An American military tribunal opened a criminal proceedings to against 23 leading German physicians and administrators which they committed crimes and tortured the prisoners in the concentration camp prisoners during the human experimentation. Thousands of concentration camp prisoners were participating without obtained consent before medical experimentation. At the end of the experiment, most of the participants died or permanently injured. As a result, Nuremberg Code was established in 1948 and emphasized the essential of voluntary consent of human participant. Nuremberg Code was the first international document which emphasized the voluntary participation and informed

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