DNR In Health Care

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For the major focal point of this discourse, as explained before, advance directives are used to convey the patient and families’ preference in treatment, including to do or not resuscitate when the patient may suffer from cardiac or respiratory arrest after. The aim of CPR is to save the patient, but the evidence shows that the implementation of CPR does not ensure a high rate of survival to hospital discharge (Enohumah et al., 2006; Landry, Parker, & Phillips, 1992; McNally et al., 2011). Due to this, the policy began to develop to limit the use of CPR and in carrying out the DNR order. In reference to this issue, Quinlan case has increased the concern (Coburn, 1977). The conflict evolved between the physician and patient’s father in determining …show more content…
Apart of that, the term “AND” (allow natural death), is becoming a preferred term to replace DNR to emphasise the order to allow natural consequences of a disease or injury, and to allow the patient to die naturally (Breault, 2011; Venneman, Narnor-Harris, Perish, & Hamilton, 2008). While a variety of terms have been suggested, throughout this discussion the term DNR will be used to refer to the preference of patient or healthcare power of attorney for do not attempt resuscitation. It is likewise significant to remark here that sometimes the term DNR is confusing since the interpretation varies between organisations. Some people may interpret DNR as not performing CPR without intubation, others may interpret DNR as utilising drugs only (Clark et al., 1994), and likewise some people may read it by avoiding all lifesaving intervention such as intubation, chest compression, and drugs (Keffer & Keffer, 1992). For most relevant interpretation, DNR orders might apply only to resuscitation (Burkhardt & Nathaniel, 2008). In other words, in the event of cardiac or respiratory arrest, there should be no attempt at resuscitation. Presuming no arrest occur, the patient may recover …show more content…
From the perspective of a pro for DNR order, most of the articles were reviewed as being concern in regards to the patient’s autonomy, which the patient have the right in refusing for CPR and requesting for DNR order (Braddock & Derbenwick, 2014; Fitzgerald, Milzman, & Sulmasy, 1994; Hilberman, Kutner, Parsons, & Murphy, 1997; Layon, 1994; Mullen & Gow, 2010). In several countries such as the UK, US, and Germany, the law allows the competent patient to refuse any form of healthcare treatment (as cited in Saevareid & Balandin, 2011), including CPR and the refusal is morally acceptable if the patient is given an explanation of the consequences of every decision (Mullen & Gow, 2010). From the essence of this ethical principle, healthcare providers including physicians and nurses should respect the patient’s preference in their healthcare decision even it contradict to their beliefs and values. Other than that, the physician is responsible for documenting the patient’s preference either for refusing CPR or requesting DNR in their medical file (Layon,

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