# Solid Solubility Lab Report

Improved Essays
Solid solubility is whether that solid can dissolve in specific solvent or not. When a solid dissolve, the ions that comprise the solid will disperse in the solvent thus create a different concentration distribution within the solvent solution. Thus we can view this as a flow of ion from high concentration to low concentration (there’s a flow of ions)
Electrical activity is the ability for electron to travel within the material. Specific solid material molecule will have free electrons to conduct thus allow electrons to freely move within the solid thus create a flow of electron current.
Conclusion, they are mechanically similar because both create a flow of particles (ions, free electrons) that enable the flow of electrons current within
Drive-in time: t_(drive-in)=3.7*(〖10〗^(-9) cm^2)/(1.5*〖10〗^(-13) ((cm^2)/s) )=6.8 hours
In order to form the deep low concentration-boron requires at least 6.8 hours at 1100 C. This requires a lot of time and energy for almost 7 hours continuously at 1100 C.
With the surface concentration and the Dt product, we can calculated the initial dose for this Gaussian profile as
Q=C(0,t) √(πD_t )=4*〖10〗^17 √π √(3.7*〖10〗^(-9) )=4.3*〖10〗^13 cm^(-2)
This dose can be implanted in a narrow layer close to the surface, justifying for the implicit assumption of Gaussian profile that the initial distribution is the approximation of the delta function.
On the other hand, assume a T = 950C for the pre-deposition, we will have
B solid solubility at 950C=2.5*〖10〗^20 cm^(-3)
B diffusivity is 4.2*〖10〗^(-15) ((cm^2)/s) =>Q=(2C_s)/√π √(D_t )=>t_(pre-dep)=((4.3*〖10〗^13)/(2.5*〖10〗^20 ))^2*(√π/2)^2*1/(4.2*〖10〗^(-15) )=5.5 s
When compare the delta function approximation with the drive in time we got a reasonable result with:
D_(t_predept )=2.3*〖10〗^(-14)≪D_(t_(drive-in)
Conclusion:
We will need a lower pre-deposition temperature in order to increase the tpredep. Or we could just simply use ion implantation to have a lower dose of dopant for the process.

6/
Since this is a furnace means that it will always at high temperature so it would be inefficient to just using the sources at solid because it took time to sublime that solid and turn it into gaseous state for diffusion sources.
The best efficient way is to use a gaseous diffusions sources. We got 2 candidates PH3 and POCl3. PH3 has a little quirk that escaping gas cannot be extinguished and exposure to fire may cause containers to rupture. This is a high temperature furnace which we will have a fire hazard so it would not wise to use PH¬3 in this. The best candidate will be POCl3 although it is an extremely hazardous but all those hazard scenario can be mitigating by applying safety countermeasure in operating the furnace as well as installing fume hood to eliminate any leak gases.
Conclusion: using POCl3 is the best since it is already in gaseous form => high efficiency, all normal standard hazard can be mitigating by applying various safety countermeasure such as safety suit, fume hood, safety

## Related Documents

• Improved Essays

The powder do not affect the chemical structure of the magnesium in the fire extinguishing process. However, a protective coat of magnesium oxide is formed on all the surface of the magnesium as it reacts very fast with air. This layer makes it hard for it continue burning. However, in case water is used when removing the residues even after several days, the fire may reignite. The water will firstly expose the surface of the magnesium residues to reaction and react with it (magnesium) to release flammable hydrogen gas hence reigniting the fire.…

• 956 Words
• 4 Pages
Improved Essays
• Improved Essays

In the Carnot cycle all the heat transfer is at constant temperature, and therefore the vapor is superheated in process 3–3. Note, however, that during this process the pressure is dropping, which means that the heat must be transferred to the vapor as it undergoes an expansion process in which work is done. This heat transfer is also very difficult to achieve in practice. Thus, the Rankine cycle is the ideal cycle that can be approximated in practice. In the following sections, we will consider some variations on the Rankine cycle that enable it to approach more closely the efficiency of the Carnot…

• 766 Words
• 4 Pages
Improved Essays
• Improved Essays

The cons would be the unpredictability and dangerous nature of nuclear power. Many of the elements used have half-lives that last millions if not billions of years. These radioactive waste products must be stored somewhere potentially infiltrating ecosystems. In contrast, fossil fuels provide a relatively cheap, easily available, and are very stable sources, that is they are much safer then nuclear. However, they emit massive amounts of greenhouse gasses when they are burned, drilled, and transported, pollution is harder to contain, and much more.…

• 1050 Words
• 4 Pages
Improved Essays
• Improved Essays

The bond between carbon dioxide and the bottom of catalyst is weaken and release carbon dioxide. The free oxygen will combine with unburned hydrocarbon to form water and carbon dioxide. When the exhaust is heated up, the catalysis reaction can occur more easily. Unleaded fuel is used in catalytic converter because the lead in conventional fuel "poisons" the catalyst and prevents it from taking up the pollutants in exhaust…

• 991 Words
• 4 Pages
Improved Essays
• Improved Essays

Liquefaction and gasification in supercritical water (SCW) are two processes for transferring substances into liquid and gaseous fuels, which is special for high moisture substances6. Supercritical water, which is serve as the solvent and the reactant in these reactions, mainly decreases mass transition restrictions in ambient condition water; therefore, it helps to accelerate the chemical reactions largely9. However, the vaporization of water along with raw materials is required by traditional pyrolysis and gasification method to convert high-moisture substances, which causes lowering thermal efficiency2. Recent researches have shown that SCW method of gasification produces enormous amount of tar waste water, which have toxic substances such…

• 1101 Words
• 4 Pages
Improved Essays
• Superior Essays

The technology for clean coal would one strategy. It is the method that removes pollutants from coal. Carbon dioxide from burning coal is the main focus of today’s attention. Because it is concerned in global warming and the Kyoto protocol requires that emissions decline notwithstanding increasing energy demand. The ability to burn coal and not contribute to the level of global carbon dioxide is a very vital technology challenge.…

• 1281 Words
• 6 Pages
Superior Essays
• Improved Essays

The article ‘Is geoengineering a bad idea?’, by Karl Mathiesen, is about techniques that could be used to reduce the effects of climate change. The two techniques are, carbon dioxide removal and albedo modification. The first is self-explanatory, remove carbon in the atmosphere and put it underground. The second technique makes the earth more reflective so the warming by the sun isn’t as intense. Interestingly enough, increasing the earth reflection could be possible right now, but may lead to unplanned problems, where removing the carbon may be more costly, but have less risky side effects.…

• 706 Words
• 3 Pages
Improved Essays
• Superior Essays

The most common material used is Uranium as it is a clean and effective way to boil water to make steam which drives turbine generators. Nuclear energy has its pros and cons, it is very risky to have these plants built in populated areas as there have been many accident of disasters involving nuclear energy. The pros of using this type of energy source is that it doesn 't pollute that much when creating energy as it releases hot steam. Some disadvantages of nuclear energy is that accidents can happen and there could be nuclear disasters, the radioactive waste released from the atom when it’s completed the process of fission and nuclear energy can be used to create powerful weapons and in the wrong hands it could end very badly. Nuclear energy is used in society to give power to 10.9 percent of the worlds energy…

• 1357 Words
• 6 Pages
Superior Essays
• Improved Essays

Since elevated temperature makes a metal more active, it will become anodic for rest of the metal. So an electrochemical corrosion cell might cause fast corrosion on metals that are at elevated temperatures. 2) pH of the Electrolyte The ph of the electrolyte in an electrochemical corrosion cell affects the speed of the corrosion by speeding up or slowing down the chemical reactions at the anode and/or the cathode. The ph of an electrolyte is basically the concentration of hydrogen ions. A ph.…

• 1106 Words
• 5 Pages
Improved Essays
• Improved Essays

However, it cannot replace oil completely in the production of mechanical equipment and other areas. So the only feasible solution would be to create all the future machinery using batteries and make hybrids to use less oil. That way oil could be preserved for a longer period of time; until a long-term and possible solution is created. Furthermore, conventional oil causes a lot of pollution which will have long-term effects on Earth. Thus, an alternative would not only benefit society, it would help the environment.…

• 1499 Words
• 6 Pages
Improved Essays