Significant Health Implications Of Childhood Obesity

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Obesity results from an energy imbalance involving excessive calorie consumption and inadequate physical activity (Karnik, 2012). Factors influencing the onset of obesity include genetic, behavioral, cultural, and environmental (Karnik, 2012). This paper will explain the significant health implications of childhood obesity, describe the risk factors that contribute towards obesity, and use the Social Cognitive Theory and the theory of planned behavior to describe how different factors influence an individual’s behavior regarding food consumption and physical activity leading them to become obese.
Significance of health Behavior
According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), the prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States has
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Determinants of health include an individual’s genetic makeup and behaviors as well as the physical, social, and economic environment (WHO, 2015). The two health behaviors that influence the onset of obesity are poor dietary disparities and physical inactivity. Dietary disparities and physical inactivity are influenced by determinants of health. Behavioral, occupational and environmental factors all work together to determine an individual’s diet consumption and physical activity.
According to the Scientific Report of the 2015 Dietary Guideline Advisory Committee, diet disparities can be defined as “differences in dietary intake, dietary behaviors, and dietary patterns in different segments of the population, resulting in poorer dietary quality and inferior health outcomes for certain groups and an unequal burden in terms of disease incidence, morbidity, mortality, survival, and quality of life.” In order to explain these disparities, socioeconomic and environmental factors need to be considered. Often times, healthy foods are more expensive, and can be difficult for individuals living in lower income locations to access (State of Obesity, 2015). Some areas have easier access to fast food and convenience stores and limited access to grocery stores (U.S. Department of Agriculture,
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The social cognitive theory focuses on reciprocal determinism, where the interaction between individual behaviors and their immediate physical and social environment are used to explain behavior (Edberg, 2015, p. 55). Individual characteristics important for behavior change include, self-efficacy, behavioral capability, expectations/expectancies, self-control and emotional coping abilities. Environmental factors determining behavior include: vicarious learning through observing the behaviors of others; the situation in which the factor takes place and the individuals perception of the factor, and by positive of negative reinforcement an individual receives as a result of a behavior (Edberg, p. 56). Self-efficacy is one of the most important frameworks in the SCT. It is the belief that an individual will be able to successfully perform a certain behavior (Young,

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