Cancer Stem Cell Research Essay

Detailed focus question: What is the process of self-renewal and duplication in breast cancer stem cells through E113, the Wnt-beta catenin signaling pathways and the tumor regulator p53?

I. Introduction: To explain the cellular and molecular features of my focus question I will provide background on cancer stem cells, some of the various signaling pathways and breast cancer specifically. A. Cancer Stem Cells (Tumor-initiating cells)
1. Basic Features: Have the capacity to self renew and the ability to produce multiple distinct differentiated cell types, which are found in mature tissue. Asymmetric divisions are demonstrated in leukemic and solid tumor stem cells. (Nguyen, Almeida, Chi, Nguyen, Cohen, Karlsson, Vinh-Hung 2010). 2. Identification by the expression of cell surface markers. (Nguyen et al., 2010).
3. the bulk of a tumor consists of rapidly proliferating and differentiated cells, with a small population of CSCs that provide for the long-term maintenance of the tumor. Cancer stem cells are responsible for tumor initiation, progression, relapse, metastasis, and drug resistance. (Kim & Kahn, 2014)
4. Cancer arises from cells in which cell-cycle checkpoints have failed, which occurs from either defects in proteins required for cell grow-activating them when they shouldn’t be. Also
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Wnt pathway signaling deregulation contributes to cancer formation and metastasis. Stem cells are likely responsible for the regeneration of breast cancer. There is a linkage between the expression of Wnt1 in human mammary epithelial cells and cancer as it increases stem cell renewal, resistance to apoptosis and failure to senesce. The Wnt pathway is not found in normal stem-like cells. This section is the primary focus of my paper and is a target principle in my focus question: signaling pathways specifically the Wnt-beta catenin pathway. This topic gives lots of information on the development of cancer and how cancer stem cells differ from cancer cells and stem

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