Self Renewal And Duplication In Stem Cells

1133 Words 5 Pages
Detailed focus question: What is the process of self-renewal and duplication in breast cancer stem cells through E113, the Wnt-beta catenin signaling pathways and the tumor regulator p53?

I. Introduction: To explain the cellular and molecular features of my focus question I will provide background on cancer stem cells, some of the various signaling pathways and breast cancer specifically. A. Cancer Stem Cells (Tumor-initiating cells)
1. Basic Features: Have the capacity to self renew and the ability to produce multiple distinct differentiated cell types, which are found in mature tissue. Asymmetric divisions are demonstrated in leukemic and solid tumor stem cells. (Nguyen, Almeida, Chi, Nguyen, Cohen, Karlsson, Vinh-Hung 2010). 2. Identification
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Extremely complex and variable according to the tumor type and progression stage.
2. Pathways frequently deviate from their functioning in normal stem cells. C. Breast Cancer
1. Identified by CD44 expression and no or low CD24 expression this is represented by (CD44+CD24-/low) or ALDH positive. Although these are not universally expressed in all breast cancer stem cells. 2. Explain mammospheres

II. The effect of E113 on the cell. E113 regulates proliferation, cancer stem cell properties and drug resistance in breast cancer cell lines. Plays a critical role in promoting oncogenesis in breast cancer by regulating cell proliferation and cancer stem cell properties. This is an important part of the paper because it is the first way that cancer stem cells self –renew and duplicate. This relates back to my focus question. (Ahn, Kim, & Park, 2013).
A. Ectopic expression and its relationship to cyclin
1. Analyzed the expression of cell cycle-related genes
a. Cyclin A: important for cell cycle, is a rate-limiting component required to initiate DNA synthesis and entry into mitosis.
b. Cyclin D: another cell cycle regulator promotes entry into G2 phase in actively proliferating cells.
c. E113 facilitates breast cancer cell proliferation by promoting cell cycle
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Wnt pathway signaling deregulation contributes to cancer formation and metastasis. Stem cells are likely responsible for the regeneration of breast cancer. There is a linkage between the expression of Wnt1 in human mammary epithelial cells and cancer as it increases stem cell renewal, resistance to apoptosis and failure to senesce. The Wnt pathway is not found in normal stem-like cells. This section is the primary focus of my paper and is a target principle in my focus question: signaling pathways specifically the Wnt-beta catenin pathway. This topic gives lots of information on the development of cancer and how cancer stem cells differ from cancer cells and stem

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