Perspectives On Teachers Extended Professionalism From School Teachers To University Teachers

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2.3. The Perspectives on Teachers’ Extended Professionalism from School Teachers’ to University Teachers’
The current problem is, however, the existed theories and research studies mostly targeted schoolteachers, then what about it for university teachers? The distinctions between their academic essence and professional responsibilities paved the way for the assumption that their views toward the extended professionalism may also be different.

The major differences of these two roles are that: firstly, they are dealing with students from different age groups, the former group is dealing with students aged below 18, while the latter is with students mostly between the 18-22. The distinctive expectations and needs for the former and latter
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For instance, according to Armstrong (2008) that ‘[o]n a day-to-day basis you will design and deliver lessons in line with national guidelines, mark work and prepare students for nationally recognised assessments. Increasingly your job will involve a great deal of record keeping’ (unpaged). In their spare time, both the schoolteachers and university teachers need to revitalise their professional ability through professional training (ibid, 2008). These similarities also indicated that what it means to be a “professional” should be the same for the teaching part of their work. Therefore, even though there are few research studies and limited resources to explore what it means to be a professional teacher from the views of university staff, the connections between schoolteachers and university teachers determined that the analysis of this issue from schoolteachers’ point of views will make great contribution to the deep exploration of the views from university teachers, because the existed study for schoolteachers offers the best descriptions of the teachers’ roles, responsibilities and the pressure they face. Under such circumstances, due to the lack of the study on this topic for university teachers, starting by drawing on the existed study for schoolteachers will bring values for my study for university teachers based on the …show more content…
Johnson and Maclean (2008) explained that ‘the discourse of life-long learning, personalisation and partnership – all leading to a new expanded professionalism’ (p.13). At the core of this expanded approach has been ‘a shift from a meso (school level) to a micro bureaucracy (teacher level) where rather than checking and monitoring pupils’ performance, teachers are now required to audit progress and carry out skills audits’ (ibid, p.13). This kind of newly extended professionalism can benefit teachers at some point, for instance, as Troman (1997) claimed that even though the extended professionalism intensified teachers’ workload, it can also be regarded as the ‘ambiguities of intensification’ (cited in Johnson and Maclean, 2008, p.13) where teachers implement their own academic expertise and knowledge (Klechtermans, 2005) to adapt to changeable tendency of the new extended professionalization. The process for them to accept new responsibilities, to adapt into new roles and changes, to develop their own professional ability and other skills can bring opportunities for them. From this perspective, newly extended professionalism gives teachers certain degree of extended rights, thus can be beneficial. However, from another angle, the extended professionalism can also bring conflicts, thus becomes

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