John Stuart Mill And Jeremy Bentham's View Of Utilitarianism

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Human nature is the characteristics and feelings all shared by human beings. In human nature, utilitarianism views that actions are only morally permissible if and only if they produce at least as much happiness as any other available act. It is composed of the value theory and the theory of right action. The value theory emphasizes that the only thing valuable in its own right is happiness and the absence of suffering. Whereas, The theory of right action maximizes value and produces the most expected value. Since utilitarianism focuses on the greater good for the greatest number of people, it is an untenable ethical theory because humans make moral decisions based on their self-interest and the end result may not be as beneficial to all human beings. …show more content…
According to Bentham, the consequentialist principle states that the rightness of an act is defined by the goodness of the results, and the hedonist principle states that an act is right if it brings pleasure and prevents pain. Hedonism specifies that pleasure is the ultimate, highest good. Therefore, it is the end goal. In Bentham’s view of utilitarianism, the “pig philosophy” argues that the end result justifies the mean because “a pig enjoying his life would constitute a higher moral state than a slightly dissatisfied Socrates” (Pojman and Fieser 97). Meanwhile, Mill explains that eudaimonistic utilitarianism captures happiness through higher- and lower-order pleasures. Higher order pleasures are acquired through intellectual, social, and creative enjoyment. In contrast, lower-order pleasures are obtained from activities like sex and eating. Mill argues that the “point is not merely that humans wouldn’t be satisfied with what satisfies a pig but that somehow the quality of the higher pleasures is better” (Pojman and Fieser 98). This indicates that higher-order pleasure is the most

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