John Maynard Keynes Research Paper

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John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946) is a British economist who is the founder of Keynesian economics and the father of modern macroeconomics. He published his foundational book: “The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money,” in 1936, years after the great depression of 1929. His theories were largely in contrast with classical economics and they impacted widely economists all over the world. Between the 1970s and the 1990s, after the appearance of new theories in economics, more economists reviewed the Keynesian economics, tried to revive them and even proposed some changes. James Tobin, Gregory Mankiw, and David Romer developed the foundations of New Keynesian economics also known as the Neo-Keynesian economics (Greenlaw, n.d). In the …show more content…
They firmly assured that governments should intervene through public policies in order to sustain a business cycle by stabilizing prices and achieving full employment. They insisted that during a recession, employment is involuntary. They claimed that wages and prices aren’t flexible downward. They can increase, but it is hard to decrease wages and prices because workers would resist cuts in their wages and trade union would revolt against these cuts. If during a recession, the government forced lowering wages, this could prove to be counter-productive because people would spend less and the aggregate demand would fall (Tejvan, 2015). Aggregate demand, according to Jahan, Mahmud, and Papageorgiou, is “the sum of spending by households, businesses, and the government (2014). It constitutes in the Keynesian economics “the most important driving force in an economy.” (Jahan, Mahmud, & Papageorgiou, 2014). When people spend less, firms produce less, and the market is affected because many people won’t have anything to do, which lead to firms letting some of their employees go, which would lead to unemployment. Keynes believed that supply is linked to demand, in a way that demand creates its own supply and that supply will always adjust to demand. (Vjyaser, 2013). If there is an inadequate demand, this might lead …show more content…
They assured that prices and wages adjust slowly to short-term economic fluctuations. They viewed markets not as self-regulating as in the classical view, but as entities that might not clear instantaneously. (Jahan, Mahmud, & Papageorgiou, 2014). Like Keynesian, New Keynesian thought that government can and should play a role in helping the economy to return to equilibrium faster by initiating management policies (Greenlaw, n.d) and that “fiscal policy [is] effective in the short run.” (Jahan, Mahmud, & Papageorgiou, 2014). Since prices are sticky, deadweight losses and market failures can damage the economy and create involuntary unemployment because they are possible on the macroeconomic scale (Greenlaw, n.d). New Keynesian economists also believed that corporations operate in a monopolistic competition and not in a perfectly competitive industry. (Greenlaw, n.d). They believed that monetary policy influenced the economic activity. (Mankiw, 2008).
In conclusion, neo-Keynesian economics appeared about 50 years after Keynesian economics; it was mainly a revival of Keynesian economics and a new approach to new problems in microeconomics and macroeconomics. While both types differ in many aspects they build on each other and they try to offer realistic solutions to

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