The Athological Theory Of Attachment In Children

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Nowadays, one of the most accepted views regarding a child’s emotional tie to his caregiver as an evolved response that promotes survival is the ethological theory of attachment. This theory was first introduced by John Bowlby, who argued that the quality of attachment to the caregiver has deep and crucial implications for the child’s emotions, especially those feelings which relate to security and to the capacity to form trusting relationships. Moreover, it was Bowlby’s belief that infants, like the young of other animal species, are endowed with a set of built in behaviors which keep the parents close by in order to protect the infant from danger, while providing support for exploring and adapting to the environment. The contact with the …show more content…
This is the time when there is an evident attachment to the caregiver. A baby will display separation anxiety at this phase, becoming clearly upset when the trusted caregiver leaves. Similar to stranger anxiety, separation anxiety does not always occur, but it rather depends on the temperament of the child and on specific scenarios or situations. In many societies, separation anxiety will increase between 6 and 15 months; this suggests that children have already developed a definite understanding about the existence of the caregiver when the latter is not in view. In accordance with this idea, babies who haven’t still mastered object permanence do not become anxious when separated from the parental figures. The small child uses the familiar caregiver as the secure base from where they are able to explore the world they live in. Because of this, not only they do protest the departure of the parental figure, but also try to maintain their presence.
During the fourth phase, we see the formation of a reciprocal relationship. This period starts around 18 months of age up to 2 years, and onward. By the end of the second year of age, there is a rapid growth in representation, and language allows children to understand some of those factors that would influence the presence or separation of the parental figure, while predicting their return. Due to this
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This image serves as the internal working model or the set of expectations that relate to the availability of attachment figures. Because of this, there is a high likelihood for these factors to provide support during the times of stress, need, and the interaction of a child with adult figures. This internal working model becomes a vital part of the individual’s personality, which serves as a guide in forming close relationships throughout

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