Idiopathic Clubfoot: A Case Study

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There have been Many theories on the etiology of idiopathic clubfoot including vascular deficiencies [34], environmental factors, in utero positioning [23], abnormal muscle insertions [9], and genetic factors [28, 30]. Of the multi-factorial factors associated with the origin, genetic factors appear to a role as suggested by the 33% concordance of identical twins and the fact that about 25% of cases are familial. Ponseti method (popularised by Ignacio Ponseti) of treatment of clubfoot involves serial manipulation and casting, Achilles tendon tenotomy usually percutaneous, and foot abduction bracing which has become the preferred treatment for idiopathic clubfoot around the world. It entails serial gentle correction of the deformities, with …show more content…
However, none of invasive or noninvasive method has yet proven its superiority. Amputation may be proposed in failed cases.2,11–15 Weber reported amputation of the calf in 9-14% of patients with CPT.

SPINE
Surgery is needed for congenital scoliosis if there is progression of the spinal curvature. Patients with congenital scoliosis are closely monitored to determine if the deformity is progressive. Bracing is used in a only a small percentage of patients who develop compensatory curve above or below the congenital anomaly.

Early Surgical intervention minimizes the deformity and number of spine levels requiring treatment. For congenital scoliosis, surgery may involve removing of a portion of the abnormal bone. Resection of a hemivertebra may allow correction of the deformity and prevent further progression of the deformity. For patients whose deformity because one side of the spine is growing faster than the other, surgery to fuse the spine in that area to equalize growth on both sides may be required.

Sprengiel deformity: Cavendish classified the cosmetic aspect of the
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Osteogenesis Imperfecta
OI Type I, the mildest form, has a triad of features: fractures, blue sclera, and hearing loss.
Fractures often begin with ambulation and decrease after puberty. It is inherited in an autosomal dorminant manner.

OI Type II is perinatal lethal. Affected infants have short, bowed long bones with crumpling from in utero fractures, blue/grey sclerae, and a large, soft cranium. Radiographs reveal under-tubulated long bones. The most common cause of death is respiratory failure, associated with small thorax, rib fractures, pneumonia, and perhaps with intrinsic collagen-related abnormalities of lung tissue. It is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner.

OI Type III (progressive deforming) is the most severe, non-lethal

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