John Holland made his mark from 1953-1556 while working at Vocational Counseling Service in Perry Point Veterans Hospital followed by his work as the Director of Research for the National Merit Scholarship Corporation. His work at these two organizations leads to the first edition of Vocational Preference Inventory. In 1959, John Holland was published in the Journal of Counseling Psychology for his vocational theory (Gottfredson & Johnstun, 2009). He established his theory of matching people to vocations in the world of work. Although the trait and factor approach was established in 1909, John Holland took it a step further using the Army as his model (Bolles & Figler, 1999). John Holland was quoted, “I am a psychologist who
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The next type, investigative, will be clients who like to observe, learn, analyze, investigative, solve problems or evaluate in general. Their proficiencies include scientific and technical training using a slide rule or microscope, using a logarithmic table, describes white blood cells by their uses, interpret chemical formulas, and understand the workings of a vacuum tube. These clients readily enjoy scientific books, lab work, chemistry, math puzzles, and normally take several classes in physics, math, and biology. Investigative job opportunities could be physician, math teacher, lab technician, or oceanographer (Bolles & Figler, 1999).
The artistic clients, Holland’s third type, are innovating or intuitive thinkers, like to work in unrestrictive environments, and tend to be extremely creative or imaginative. Skills for creative people would contain playing a musical instrument, choir, designing, creating photography or art, or read/write poetry. Artistic types, according to Holland, would enjoy sketching, attending plays, taking an art class, or reading popular fiction. Occupations for these clients can be drama coach, advertising executive, photographer, or foreign language interpreter (Bolles & Figler, 1999).
Holland’s fourth types of clients, social, like to work with people by informing, helping, training, or are skilled with words. These clients will feel competent with peers older than them, easily plan a school or