History of Early Childhood Education - Comenius, Froebel, Montessori

2643 Words Mar 16th, 2013 11 Pages
Paper History of Early Childhood Education Comenius, Froebel, Montessori

1. John Amos Comenius John Amos Comenius (1592-1670) was a Czech theologian, philosopher, teacher and writer who thought education could improve society. He advocated universal textbooks & language and believed children would enjoy learning more if they were methodically taught in early years. Comenius thought instruction should move from general to specific, from easy to difficult and believed to engage children with nature. He taught that education began in the earliest days of childhood, and continued throughout life.1 Comenius believed in four different schools for different ages: -Nursery School – birth to 6 years of age, where hands-on learning, active
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He accepted Pestalozzi's general method that saw schools as emotionally secure places for children, but he elevated the concept to a highly spiritual level. Like Pestalozzi, he wanted to prepare teachers who would be sensitive to children's readiness and needs.7 Furthermore Froebel studied languages and science at the University of Göttingen from 1810 to 1812 . He wanted to identify linguistic structures that could be applied to language instruction. From 1812 to 1816 Froebel studied mineralogy at the University of Berlin. He believed the process of crystallization, moving from simple to complex, reflected a universal cosmic law that also governed human growth and development. Froebel was influenced by two trends in the first half of the 19th century: a resurgence of philosophical idealism and the rising nationalism of the post-Napoleonic eras. Idealism emphasizes a spiritually based reality. Idealists saw the nation as embodying the world spirit on earth. During Froebel's life, there were efforts to unite the various small German kingdoms into one large nation. He believed that an education that emphasized German traditions and folk tales would advance this cause. Froebel's idealism was a reaction against the empiricism of Locke and Rosseau. However, his educational philosophy emphasized the dignity of child nature as recommended by Rousseau and Pestalozzi. In 1816 Froebel established the Universal German Educational Institute at Griesheim. He moved the

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