Harvard Referencing Guide Essays

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Harvard System Referencing Guide


This guide sets out the Harvard system of referencing to be used in the Thesis and other major essays submitted as part of the course taught through out the MBA program. It is important to reference published material that you wish to use in your essay. While referencing is a standard that is used to avoid plagiarism it also supports a strong scientific method.

To build arguments and provide evidence you must reference any published resources you use. The spirit of referencing is embodied in Newton's famous 1676 quote, 'If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants'. It means that Newton's great discoveries were made by building on the previous work of
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It features five important forces; barriers to entry, buyers, suppliers, substitutes, and intensity of rivalry (Porter, 1980, in Haslam, et al., 2000). Haslam, et al. (2000) cite Pharmaceutical giant Glaxo-Wellcome as particularly at risk of low-cost substitutes as drug patents expire.
Reference List

Alphabetically ordered list of references:
Haslam, C., Neale, A., and Johal, S. (2000) Economics in a Business Context 3rd ed. London: Thompson Learning.
Littler, C.R. (1982) The Development of the Labour Process in Capitalist Societies. London: Heinemann.
Smith, C., Child, J., and Rowlinson, M. (1990) Reshaping Work: The Cadbury experience. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Whetton, D.A., and Cameron, K.S. (1991) Developing Management Skills 2nd ed. New
York: HarperCollins.


In-text referencing of journal articles uses the same format as books (see above). Notice that the reference list includes the name of the journal article and the name of the journal. Be wary of electronic journals or articles retrieved from the internet as some formats may not include the original page numbers you might need for direct quotations.


Broadbent, Jacobs, and Laughlin's (1999) comparison of the organizational accountability of UK and New Zealand Schools reveals important distinctions. Broadbent, et al. (1999) discuss how management accounting in UK schools results in an

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