Gerot And Halliday: Three Metafunctions Of Language, Theory, And Behavioral Theory

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In this study, the writer used the functional grammar theory that is introduced by Halliday (1994). Besides that, the writer also used Gerot and Wignell (1994) because they simplify the complicated books by Halliday so the writer can understand the theory better. Thus, the writer quotes more from Gerot and Wignell. In accordance with Gerot and Wignell (1994: 6), Functional Grammar attempts to explain language in actual use and focus on text and their contexts. Functional grammar concerns not only with structure but also how those structures construct meaning. In Functional grammar, clause is the most important unit rather than sentences. In Functional Grammar, Halliday (1994) describes three metafunctions of language. Those are:
l. Ideational
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Process type explains the difference events constructed by the author. Each process is realized by the verb used in each clause (Halliday: 2004). Process type is divided to six kinds: (1) Material process, the process of doing something physically, performed by a person (actor) against someone or something else (goal). (2) Behavioral process, describe the physiological and psychological habits, participant in this process is called behaver. (3) Mental processes, sensory processes, either through the senses directly or by way of feeling and thinking. Participant that play a role in this process is senser and phenomenon. (4) Verbal process, the process of the message verbally and usually characterized by expression symbol, for example say, conclude, argue and so forth. In the process there are receiver (object verbalization), verbiage/range (verbialitation itself), the target (the object of patients). (5) Relational process, the process of ownership. This process is classified by function, if it is shown to illustrate something called attributive (participant in the form of carrier and attributes), while if it indicates a quality of something called the identifying (participant in the form of tokens and value). (6) existential, a process that shows the existence of something, characterized by the use of the word pointer, for example, there is, that is, there are, and so …show more content…
Interpersonal meaning or clause as exchange. It is expressed by mood structures and modality. It deals with what the clause is doing as a verbal process between speaker/writer and audience (Halliday and Mattiessen, 1994:309). This meaning is influenced by the tenor of discourse. Interpersonal meaning is meaning which express a speaker’s attitudes and judgements. Modality and Mood are often used to express the interpersonal function. Mood shows what role the speaker selects in the speech situation and what role he assigns to the addressee. If the speaker selects the imperative mood, he assumes the role of one giving commands and puts the addressee in the role of one expected to obey orders. Mood system categorizes each sentence according to the type of sentence. There are three types of sentences, namely declarative, imperative and interogative. The mood analysis continued with determining the adjunct. There is three kind of adjunct to be analized, these are circumstantial adjunct, conjunctive adjunct and comment adjuncts. Circumstantial adjunct answer the question ‘how’, ‘when’, ‘where’, ‘by whom’. Conjunctive adjunct include items such as ‘for instance’, ‘anyway’, ‘moreover’, ‘meanwhile’, ‘therefore’, ‘nevertheles’. Comment adjunct express the speaker’s comment on what he or she is saying, include such items as ‘frankly’, ‘apparently’, ‘hopefully’. Beside that there is modality. Modality refers to a speaker’s attitudes or opinion about the truth of a proposition expressed

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