Gender Differences In Intelligence

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GENDER DIFFERENCES IN INTELLIGENCE AND ITS COMPONENTS:
Intelligence refers to mental abilities and varies from person to person. Some psychologists believe it involves only one aspect while others say there are various components of intelligence, so a person may be high in one but low in the other.
Then the question arises about whether there are gender differences in intelligence. There is evidence to show that this may be true. This paper discusses the research findings related to this.
Components of intelligence where gender differences are seen:
Visuo-spatial abilities:
This includes spatial perception, mental rotation, spatial visualization, spatiotemporal ability, generation and maintenance of a spatial image. Voyer,Voyer and Brydon
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For example, if biologically one gender has an advantage in a cognitive ability and if society encourages it, this advantage will be strengthened. (Halpern, 2013)
Recent Research:
Recent research done for gender differences in intelligence continues to show varied and contrasting results.
In a recent study in 2014, it was found that women scored higher than men on all the variables tested- verbal, kinaesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal and naturalistic abilities. The reason researchers Rohr & Martos (1996) gave for this was that females used both hemispheres, but primarily the right and men favoured the left hemisphere. (MENEVIŞ & ÖZAD, 2014)
In a 2012 study of students (8267 boys and 3853 girls) in India male students scored the highest, especially urban males and the lowest scores were obtained by female students from rural areas. (Hashmi, Zeshan, Khalid & Parveen, 2012).
Conclusion:
In conclusion, I have gathered that neither gender is superior to the other in intelligence, as women and men surpass each other in different tasks.
It is also important to keep in mind individual differences in intelligence. The ultimate aim of such research is to help each individual perform to the best of their abilities. (Halpern,
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Halpern, D., & Tan, U. (2001). Stereotypes and Steroids: Using a Psychobiosocial Model to Understand Cognitive Sex Differences. Brain And Cognition, 45(3), 392-414. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/brcg.2001.1287
Hashmi, M., Zeshan, A., Khalid, K., & Parveen, S. (2012). A Comparative Analysis of Basic Cognitive Abilities among Students with respect to Gender. Journal Of Educational Research, 15(2). Retrieved from http://elibraryusa.state.gov/primo?url=http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CA356858717&v=2.1&u=wash89460&it=r&p=AONE&sw=w
Ingalhalikar, M., Smith, A., Parker, D., Satterthwaite, T., Elliott, M., & Ruparel, K. et al. (2013). Sex differences in the structural connectome of the human brain. Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences, 111(2), 823-828.

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