Erik Erikson Stages of Development and Cultural Implication Essays
An individual is made up of his or her frames of reference. Our social interactions and beliefs are all a reflection of our surroundings, environment, things we hear, feel or touch. A frame of reference can simply be defined as “The context, viewpoint, or set of presuppositions or of evaluative criteria within which a person's perception and thinking seem always to occur, and which constrains selectively the course and outcome of these activities" therefore one can say, Gender, Age, Religion, Environment, Education, Occupation, Political Class, Family and Press are the common determinants of individual frames of reference.
"We are told about the world before we see it. We imagine most things before we experience them …show more content…
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
During age 1 – 3, children assert their independence by walking un aided and making choices. If a child is properly guided and encouraged to make right choices always, they become confident and have increased independence otherwise, they cower and always depend on others. Early desires of mothers for their child to walk
In the Nigerian cultural settings mothers are usually anxious for their child to start walking on or before the 12th month and as a result, usually the child is encouraged to walk freely or stand on their own thereby creating and harnessing that independence spirit in the child. Per-adventure the child is a slow learner and wouldn’t walk before she turns 12, the forceful desires of her parents to ensure she walks before her 1st birthday may be harmful to the child. Several children have had to be partially or seriously paralyzed due to their constant standing on a weak leg forced by their mothers.
Initiative vs. Guilt
Between age 3 – 6. Children plan