Ecological Model Of IPV

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2.4.1 Ecological Model
The ecological model provides a comprehensive theoretical explanation on the perpetrators of IPV and explains IPV from four angles; the individual level, the relationship level, the community level and the societal level. The biological and personal characteristics indicated by the individual level of the model those are likely to influence an intimate partner to perpetrate violence against the other partner. Age, education, income, substance use, or histories of aggressive behaviors are the individual factors that predict the perpetration and the likelihood of being a victim of IPV. The relationship level factors include family, friends, intimate partners and peers which is concerned about the social circles of people
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Sociologists indicate that the sexist power hierarchy between men and women is the major contributor to violence against women(69). Cromwell and Olson (1975) conceptualized the marital power theory dividing power into three domains: power bases, power processes and power outcomes. Power bases are the personal characteristics and assets such as knowledge, skills that form the basis of one partner’s control over another are considered as power bases. Power bases are not only related to economic power but also the other resources that can affect on marital power of the couple. The cultural definition of who has the authority. Power processes assesses asymmetrical behaviors in which the husband presses the wife to discuss a problem and then criticizes, nags and makes demands on her and the wife tries to avoid discussion of the problem and defend herself, withdraws, become silent or refuses to discuss the matter further. Power outcomes measures may not be the simple one to assess when it is related with domestic violence. However, as some large studies on nationally representative …show more content…
This violence could be political, domestic or community. A study conducted in Brazil reported that exposure to direct and indirect violence increased more than six times (95% CI 2.7-16.0) the odds of psychological distress, in which the association to direct exposure to violence is more than with the indirect exposure to violence. Moreover, increase in various forms of violence are associated with factors such as rapid urbanization with concentrated population in big cities, inequality in wealth distribution, changes in employment relationships, greater competition and impersonality in social relationships, reduction in traditional networks of social support, greater access to firearms, drug trafficking, and environmental degradation as intermediate factors contributing to the increase in urban violence (71). Violence may be political or domestic, there are networks of factors which are responsible for the causation of different forms of violence and these different forms of violence result into mental health problems in those population who experience it, making it a serious public health problem globally (37,

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