Dinoflagellate Algae Essay

5043 Words Jul 27th, 2015 21 Pages
Negative impacts of Dinoflagellate algae: economic, ecologic, and human health hazards

ABSTRACT Increasing pollution both atmospheric and oceanic are encouraging algal growth and increasing the frequency and geographic range of high density dinoflagellate blooms. Public health and economic impacts, as well as negative ecological effects of the aquatic environment are increasing the scientific research done on toxic dinoflagellate species. Contaminated bivalves are causing paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) and diarrhetic shellfish poisoning in humans (DSP); with the number of cases increasing steadily in the last 40 years. Toxins released by certain species of the phylum dinoflagellate are the cause of this spreading
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Red tides are massive concentrations of harmful neurotoxin releasing species of dinoflagellates and have been reported to being in every ocean and major sea of the world. One of the major impacts of these toxic aggregations of dinoflagellate species is an economic loss for fishing and aquaculture industries. The loss comes from shellfish and marketable fish species contaminated by the toxins released in high levels by dinoflagellate algal blooms. As mentioned before the most dangerous form of dinoflagellate blooms is the Red tide. These blooms tint the surface of the water red, due to the heavy concentration of the single celled phytoplankton, and can release an aerosolized neurotoxin that cause human illness and paralysis after exposure in the form of inhalation (Pierce, 1986). Algal blooms have negative affects on the water it covers, not only from real easing potent toxins but it changes the environment by blocking sunlight from entering past the surface of the water, blocking sunlight from normally photic-zones in the ocean. The competitive dinoflagellate species also cause anoxia in ocean organisms when they use all oxygen in the water and release CO2 in their process of photosynthesis. Algae is at the bottom of the trophic level, which means many larger organisms are affected by the tiny phytoplankton, especially the microscopic predator of dinoflagellate algae, zooplankton. Zooplankton are the primary food of many large ocean mammals and become

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