Differences And Characteristics Of Malignant And Benign Tumors

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1. Discuss the differences between a malignant and benign tumor and how they may be used in diagnosing the cancer. (See Characteristics of Malignant and Benign Tumors.)
The definition of a tumor is cellular growth that no longer responds to the normal body controls (549), or cells that don’t know when to stop growing. The most basic difference between a benign and a malignant tumor is that a malignant tumor is cancerous cells. Benin tumors are usually differentiated cells that are reproducing at a higher rate than normal (550). Benign tumors are also often encapsulated and do not spread to other parts of the body (550). On the other hand, malignant tumors lack organization and are usually undifferentiated, nonfunctional cells (550). In malignant
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Discuss what other signs and symptoms Mrs. H may expect to experience if the tumor returns. (See Pathophysiology, Local Effects of Malignant Tumors, Systemic Effects of Malignant Tumors.)
There are many signs and symptoms of tumors, some early and some are later. It also depends if the return of cancer is because of metastases or cancer in the other breast. Mrs. H has breast cancer, and only the right breast was removed, therefore it is possible that she will find a lump in the remaining breast tissue or a lump or discharge from the left breast (551). Another sign that the cancer has returned is weight loss, which can be due to many factors, such as the tumor cells taking all the nutrient (552). Another possible symptom of returning cancer is severe fatigue or a similar reason (553).
3. Other than the biopsy used in this case, discuss what other diagnostic tests could have been used to diagnose the cancer. (See Diagnostic
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H is receiving a few different treatments to try an cure the cancer. First she has surgery where they remove the tumor and some of the surrounding tissue or lymph nodes. With surgery there needs to be “clean” margins, extra tissue arounds the tumor to make sure that all of the cancerous tissue was extracted. Depending on where the tumor is, surgery can be disfiguring or limit function. Surgery be hard physically on the body and there is long recovery time. In this case Mrs. H has her right breast removed and that can have a large effect on her self-esteem and self- image. But the surgery did remove all of the tumor that was found and infected lymph nodes, which significantly reduces the chances of metastases. Then she receives a combination of chemotherapy and radiation, both which have serious advantages and disadvantages’. Radiation therapy causes changes in the damaged DNA, preventing cell reproduction or killing the cell right away (559). The hope is that Radiation therapy will destroy any cancerous cells still in the body, killing them or stopping them from replication. There are many side effects of Radiation therapy, such as bone marrow depression and damage to the epithelial cells and the blood vessels (561). With Chemo it is a combination of drugs that intervene with protein synthesis and DNA replication, killing the cells. Like radiation there are many side effects, like vomiting, hair loss and damage to epithelial cells, as well as bone marrow depression.

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